Practice Guidelines for Perioperative Blood Transfusion and Adjuvant Therapies

American Society of Anesthesiologists




1.            Alanay A, Acaroglu E, Ozdemir O, Ercelen O, Bulutcu E, Surat A: Effects of deamino-8-D-arginin vasopressin on blood loss and coagulation factors in scoliosis surgery. A double-blind randomized clinical trial. Spine 1999; 24:877-882

2.            Alderman EL, Levy JH, Rich JB, Nili M, Vidne B, Schaff H, Uretzky G, Pettersson G, Thiis JJ, Hantler CB, Chaitman B, Nadel A: Analyses of coronary graft patency after aprotinin use: results from the International Multicenter Aprotinin Graft Patency Experience (IMAGE) trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1998; 116:716-730

3.            Almeida MF: Preoperative normovolemic hemodilution in aesthetic plastic surgery. Aesthetic Plast Surg 1999; 23:445-449

4.            Alvarez JM, Jackson LR, Chatwin C, Smolich JJ: Low-dose postoperative aprotinin reduces mediastinal drainage and blood product use in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting who are taking aspirin: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001; 122:457-463

5.            Alvarez JM, Quiney NF, McMillan D, Joscelyne K, Connelly T, Brady P, Deal C, Wilson R: The use of ultra-low-dose aprotinin to reduce blood loss in cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1995; 9:29-33

6.            Amar D, Grant FM, Zhang H, Boland PJ, Leung DH, Healey JA: Antifibrinolytic therapy and perioperative blood loss in cancer patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. Anesthesiology 2003; 98:337-342

7.            Andrews CM, Lane DW, Bradley JG: Iron pre-load for major joint replacement. Transfus Med 1997; 7:281-286

8.            Armellin G, Sorbara C, Bonato R, Pittarello D, Cero PD, Giron G: Intraoperative plasmapheresis in cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1997; 11:13-17

9.            Avall A, Hyllner M, Bengtson JP, Carlsson L, Bengtsson A: Greater increase in cytokine concentration after salvage with filtered whole blood than with washed red cells, but no difference in postoperative hemoglobin recovery. Transfusion 1999; 39:271-276

10.        Avall A, Hyllner M, Bengtson JP, Carlsson L, Bengtsson A: Postoperative inflammatory response after autologous and allogeneic blood transfusion. Anesthesiology 1997; 87:511-516

11.        Avall A, Hyllner M, Swolin B, Bengtson J, Carlsson L, Bengtsson A: Increased serum erythropoietin concentration after allogeneic compared with autologous blood transfusion. Transfus Apheresis Sci 2002; 27:203-210

12.        Axford TC, Dearani JA, Ragno G, MacGregor H, Patel MA, Valeri CR, Khuri SF: Safety and therapeutic effectiveness of reinfused shed blood after open heart surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 1994; 57:615-622

13.        Bacher A, Mayer N, Rajek AM, Haider W: Acute normovolaemic haemodilution does not aggravate gastric mucosal acidosis during cardiac surgery. Intensive Care Med 1998; 24:313-321

14.        Bailey CR, Kelleher AA, Wielogorski AK: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study of three aprotinin regimens in primary cardiac surgery. Br J Surg 1994; 81:969-973

15.        Barnette RE, Wendling WW, Schweiger JW, Brister NW, Schartel SA, Chen D, Shuman CA, McClurken JB, Jeevanandam V: Intravenous vitamin K1 prior to orthotopic heart transplantation: effects in vivo and in vitro. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997; 41:78-83

16.        Bartels C, Bechtel JV, Winkler C, Horsch S: Intraoperative autotransfusion in aortic surgery: comparison of whole blood autotransfusion versus cell separation. J Vasc Surg 1996; 24:102-108

17.        Bartels C, Claeys L, Ktenidis K, Nigbur H, Horsch S: Intraoperative whole blood autotransfusion during venous thrombectomy. J Cardiovasc Surg 1994; 35:109-114

18.        Basora M, Gomar C, Escolar G, Pacheco M, Fita G, Rodriguez E, Ordinas A: Platelet function during cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass with low-dose aprotinin. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1999; 13:382-387

19.        Beath SM, Nuttall GA, Fass DN, Oliver WC Jr, Ereth MH, Oyen LJ: Plasma aprotinin concentrations during cardiac surgery: full- versus half-dose regimens. Anesth Analg 2000; 91:257-264

20.        Bedirhan MA, Turna A, Yagan N, Tasci O: Aprotinin reduces postoperative bleeding and the need for blood products in thoracic surgery: results of a randomized double-blind study. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2001; 20:1122-1127

21.        Benli IT, Akalin S, Duman E, Citak M, Kis M: The results of intraoperative autotransfusion in orthopaedic surgery. Bull Hosp Jt Dis 1999; 58:184-187

22.        Bennett SR: Perioperative autologous blood transfusion in elective total hip prosthesis operations. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1994; 76:95-98

23.        Bennett-Guerrero E, Sorohan JG, Canada AT, Ayuso L, Newman MF, Reves JG, Mythen MG: e-aminocaproic acid plasma levels during cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg 1997; 85:248-251

24.        Benoist S, Panis Y, Pannegeon V, Alves A, Valleur P: Predictive factors for perioperative blood transfusions in rectal resection for cancer: A multivariate analysis of a group of 212 patients. Surgery 2001; 129:433-439

25.        Benoni G, Fredin H: Fibrinolytic inhibition with tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusion after knee arthroplasty: a prospective, randomised, double-blind study of 86 patients. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1996; 78:434-440

26.        Benoni G, Lethagen S, Nilsson P, Fredin H: Tranexamic acid, given at the end of the operation, does not reduce postoperative blood loss in hip arthroplasty. Acta Orthop Scand 2000; 71:250-254

27.        Biesma DH, Marx JJ, Kraaijenhagen RJ, Franke W, Messinger D, van de Wiel A: Lower homologous blood requirement in autologous blood donors after treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin. Lancet 1994; 344:367-370

28.        Billote DB, Glisson SN, Green D, Wixson RL: Efficacy of preoperative autologous blood donation: analysis of blood loss and transfusion practice in total hip replacement. J Clin Anesth 2000; 12:537-542

29.        Bjessmo S, Ivert T: Blood loss after coronary artery bypass surgery: relations to patient variables and antithrombotic treatment. Scand Cardiovasc J 2000; 34:438-445

30.        Blais RE, Hadjipavlou AG, Shulman G: Efficacy of autotransfusion in spine surgery: comparison of autotransfusion alone and with hemodilution and apheresis. Spine 1996; 21:2795-2800

31.        Blauhut B, Harringer W, Bettelheim P, Doran JE, Spath P, Lundsgaard-Hansen P: Comparison of the effects of aprotinin and tranexamic acid on blood loss and related variables after? cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1994; 108:1083-1091

32.        Body SC, Birmingham J, Parks R, Ley C, Maddi R, Shernan SK, Siegel LC, Stover EP, D'Ambra MN, Levin J, Mangano DT, Spiess BD: Safety and efficacy of shed mediastinal blood transfusion after cardiac surgery: a multicenter observational study. Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1999; 13:410-416

33.        Boldt J, Weber A, Mailer K, Papsdorf M, Schuster P: Acute normovolaemic haemodilution vs controlled hypotension for reducing the use of allogeneic blood in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Br J Anaesth 1999; 82:170-174

34.        Bottner F, Pavone V, Johnson T, Heitkemper S, Sculco TP: Blood management after bilateral total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 2003; 410:254-261

35.        Boyer-Neumann C, Dreyfus M, Wolf M, Veyradier A, Meyer D: Multi-therapeutic approach to manage delivery in an alloimmunized patient with type 3 von Willebrand disease. J Thromb Haemost 2003; 1:190-192

36.        Boylan JF, Klinck JR, Sandler AN, Arellano R, Greig PD, Nierenberg H, Roger SL, Glynn MF: Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss, transfusion requirements, and coagulation factor use in primary orthotopic liver transplantation. Anesthesiology 1996; 85:1043-1048

37.        Braga M, Gianotti L, Vignali A, Gentilini O, Servida P, Bordignon C, Di Carlo V: Evaluation of recombinant human erythropoietin to facilitate autologous blood donation before surgery in anaemic patients with cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. Br J Surg 1995; 82:1637-1640

38.        Brener SJ, Bhatt DL, Moliterno DJ, Schneider JP, Ellis SG, Topol EJ: Revisiting optimal anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin during coronary stent implantation. Am J Cardiol 2003; 92:1468-1471

39.        Brown RS, Thwaites BK, Mongan PD: Tranexamic acid is effective in decreasing postoperative bleeding and transfusions in primary coronary artery bypass operations: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Anesth Analg 1997; 85:963-970

40.        Burman JF, Westlake AS, Davidson SJ, Rutherford LC, Rayner AS, Wright AM, Morgan CJ, Pepper JR: Study of five cell salvage machines in coronary artery surgery. Transfus Med 2002; 12:173-179

41.        Cacciarelli TV, Keeffe EB, Moore DH, Burns W, Chuljian P, Busque S, Concepcion W, So SK, Esquivel CO: Primary liver transplantation without transfusion of red blood cells. Surgery 1996; 120:698-704

42.        Cammerer U, Dietrich W, Rampf T, Braun SL, Richter JA: The predictive value of modified computerized thromboelastography and platelet function analysis for postoperative blood loss in routine cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2003; 96:51-57

43.        Canver CC, Kroncke GM, Nichols RD, Murray EL, Mentzer RM Jr: The effects of intraoperative autologous whole blood sequestration on the need for transfusion of allogenic blood and blood products in coronary bypass operations. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1995; 36:423-438

44.        Capdevila X, Calvet Y, Biboulet P, Biron C, Rubenovitch J, d'Athis F: Aprotinin decreases blood loss and homologous transfusions in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. Anesthesiology 1998; 88:50-57

45.        Casas JI, Zuazu-Jausoro I, Mateo J, Oliver A, Litvan H, Muniz-Diaz E, Aris A, Caralps JM, Fontcuberta J: Aprotinin versus desmopressin for patients undergoing operations with cardiopulmonary bypass. A double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1995; 110:1107-1117

46.        Casati V, Bellotti F, Gerli C, Franco A, Oppizzi M, Cossolini M, Calori G, Benussi S, Alfieri O, Torri G: Tranexamic acid administration after cardiac surgery: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anesthesiology 2001; 94:8-14

47.        Casati V, Gerli C, Franco A, Torri G, D'Angelo A, Benussi S, Alfieri O: Tranexamic acid in off-pump coronary surgery: A preliminary, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Thorac Surg 2001; 72:470-475

48.        Casati V, Speziali G, D'Alessandro C, Cianchi C, Antonietta Grasso M, Spagnolo S, Sandrelli L: Intraoperative low-volume acute normovolemic hemodilution in adult open-heart surgery. Anesthesiology 2002; 97:367-373

49.        Cash KL, Brown T, Sausais L, Uehlinger J, Reed LJ: Severe delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction secondary to anti-At(a). Transfusion 1999; 39:834-837

50.        Chan ACW, Blumgart LH, Wuest DL, Melendez JA, Fong Y: Use of preoperative autologous blood donation in liver resections for colorectal metastases. Am J Surg 1998; 175:461-465

51.        Chanda A, Smith DR, Nanda A: Autotransfusion by cell saver technique in surgery of lumbar and thoracic spinal fusion with instrumentation. J Neurosurg 2002; 96(3 Suppl):298-303

52.        Cheema P, El-Mefty O, Jazieh AR: Intraoperative haemorrhage associated with the use of extract of Saw Palmetto herb: a case report and review of the literaure. J Intern Med 2001; 250:167-169

53.        Chen L, Bracey AW, Radobancevic R, Cooper JR, Collard CD, Vaughn WK, Nussmeier NA: Clopidogrel and bleeding in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. J Thoracic Cardiovasc Surg 2004, 128:425-431

54.        Chikada M, Furuse A, Kotsuka Y, Yagyu K: Open-heart surgery in Jehovah's Witness patients. Cardiovasc Surg 1996; 4:311-314

55.        Cicek S, Demirkilic U, Kuralay E, Ozal E, Tatar H: Postoperative aprotinin: effect on blood loss and transfusion requirements in cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg 1996; 61:1372-1376

56.        Cicek S, Demirkilic U, Ozal E, Kuralay E, Bingol H, Tatar H, Ozturk OY: Postoperative use of aprotinin in cardiac operations: an alternative to its prophylactic use. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996; 112:1462-1467

57.        Cina CS, Bruin G: Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) in surgery of the thoraco-abdominal aorta. A cohort study to evaluate coagulation parameters and blood products utilization. J Cardiovasc Surg 1999; 40:37-43

58.        Cina CS, It SC, Clase CM, Bruin G: A cohort study of coagulation parameters and the use of blood products in surgery of the thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta. J Vasc Surg 2001; 33:462-468

59.        Clagett GP, Valentine RJ, Jackson MR, Mathison C, Kakish HB, Bengtson TD: A randomized trial of intraoperative autotransfusion during aortic surgery. J Vasc Surg 1999; 29:22-30

60.        Clagett GP, Valentine RJ, Myers SI, Chervu A, Heller J: Does desmopressin improve hemostasis and reduce blood loss from aortic surgery? A randomized, double-blind study. J Vasc Surg 1995; 22:223-229

61.        Clugston PA, Fitzpatrick DG, Kester DA, Folet B, Germann E: Autologous blood use in reduction mammaplasty: is it justified? Plast Reconstr Surg 1995; 95:824-828

62.        Codispoti M, Mankad PS: Significant merits of a fibrin sealant in the presence of coagulopathy following paediatric cardiac surgery: randomised controlled trial. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002; 22:200-205

63.        Coffey A, Pittmam J, Halbrook H, Fehrenbacher J, Beckman D, Hormuth D: The use of tranexamic acid to reduce postoperative bleeding following cardiac surgery: a double-blind randomized trial. Am Surg 1995; 61:566-568

64.        Connelly NR, Kiessling BM, Brull SJ: Does tranexamic acid decrease bleeding in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass? Yale J Biol Med 1994; 67:265-268

65.        Connor JP, Morris PC, Alagoz T, Anderson B, Bottles K, Buller RE: Intraoperative autologous blood collection and autotransfusion in the surgical management of early cancers of the uterine cervix. Obstet Gynecol 1995; 86:373-378

66.        Consten ECJ, Henny CP, Eijsman L, Dongelmans DA, van Oers MHJ: The routine use of fresh frozen plasma in operations with cardiopulmonary bypass is not justified. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996; 112:162-167

67.        Copley LA, Richards BS, Safavi FZ, Newton PO: Hemodilution as a method to reduce transfusion requirements in adolescent spine fusion surgery. Spine 1999; 24:219-222

68.        Daily PO, Lamphere JA, Dembitsky WP, Adamson RM, Dans NF: Effect of prophylactic epsilon-aminocaproic acid on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing first-time coronary artery bypass grafting. A randomized, prospective, double-blind study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1994; 108:99-106

69.        Dalmau A, Sabate A, Acosta F, Garcia-Huete L, Koo M, Reche M, Rafecas A, Figueras J, Jaurrieta E: Comparative study of antifibrinolytic drugs in orthotopic liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 1999; 31:2361-2362

70.        Dalmau A, Sabate A, Acosta F, Garcia-Huete L, Koo M, Sansano T, Rafecas A, Figueras J, Jaurrieta E, Parrilla P: Tranexamic acid reduces red cell transfusion better than epsilon-aminocaproic acid or placebo in liver transplantation. Anesth Analg 2000; 91:29-34

71.        Dalrymple-Hay MJ, Pack L, Deakin CD, Shephard S, Ohri SK, Haw MP, Livesey SA, Monro JL: Autotransfusion of washed shed mediastinal fluid decreases the requirement for autologous blood transfusion following cardiac surgery: a prospective randomized trial. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1999; 15:830-834

72.        D'Ambra MN, Akins CW, Blackstone EH, Bonney SL, Cohn LH, Cosgrove DM, Levy JH, Lynch KE, Maddi R: Aprotinin in primary valve replacement and reconstruction: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996; 112:1081-1089

73.        Dave SP, Greenstein AJ, Sachar DB, Harpaz N, Aledort L: Bleeding diathesis in amyloidosis with renal insufficiency associated with Crohn's disease: response to desmopressin. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97:187-189

74.        de Andrade JR, Jove M, Landon G, Frei D, Guilfoyle M, Young DC: Baseline hemoglobin as a predictor of risk of transfusion and response to Epoetin alfa in orthopedic surgery patients. Am J Orthop 1996; 25:533-542

75.        de Pree C, Mermillod B, Hoffmeyer P, Beris P: Recombinant human erythropoietin as adjuvant treatment for autologous blood donation in elective surgery with large blood needs (> 5 units): a randomized study. Transfusion 1997; 37:708-714

76.        del Pozo Pozo AI, Jimenez-Yuste V, Villar A, Quintana M, Hernandez-Navarro F: Successful thyroidectomy in a patient with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome treated with recombinant activated factor VII and platelet concentrates. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2002; 13:551-553

77.        Despotis GJ, Levine V, Filos KS, Santoro SA, Joist JH, Spitznagel E, Goodnough LT: Evaluation of a new point-of-care test that measures PAF-mediated acceleration of coagulation in cardiac surgical patients. Anesthesiology 1996; 85:1311-1323

78.        Despotis GJ, Levine V, Saleem R, Spitznagel E, Joist JH: Use of point-of-care test in identification of patients who can benefit from desmopressin during cardiac surgery: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1999; 354:106-110

79.        Dich-Nielsen JO, Rajan RM, Jensen JJ: An anaphylactoid-like reaction following infusion of salvaged unwashed drain blood. Can J Anaesth 1998; 45:189

80.        Dietrich W, Dilthey G, Spannagl M, Jochum M, Braun SL, Richter JA: Influence of high-dose aprotinin on anticoagulation, heparin requirement, and celite- and kaolin-activated clotting time in heparin-pretreated patients undergoing open-heart surgery. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anesthesiology 1995; 83:679-689

81.        Dignan RJ, Law DW, Seah PW, Manganas CW, Newman DC, Grant PW, Wolfenden HD: Ultra-low dose aprotinin decreases transfusion requirements and is cost effective in coronary operations. Ann Thorac Surg 2001; 71:158-63

82.        Dryden PJ, O'Connor JP, Jamieson WR, Reid I, Ansley D, Sadeghi H, Burr LH, Munro AI, Merrick PM: Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and transfusion in reoperative cardiac surgery. Can J Anaesth 1997; 44:934-941

83.        Ehrlich M, Grabenwoger M, Cartes-Zumelzu F, Luckner D, Kovarik J, Laufer G, Kocher A, Konetschny R, Wolner E, Havel M: Operations on the thoracic aorta and hypothermic circulatory arrest: is aprotinin safe? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1998; 115:220-225

84.        Ekback G, Axelsson K, Ryttberg L, Edlund B, Kjellberg J, Weckstrom J, Carlsson O, Schott U: Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in total hip replacement surgery. Anesth Analg 2000; 91:1124-1130

85.        Ekback G, Schott U, Axelsson K, Carlberg M: Perioperative autotransfusion and functional coagulation analysis in total hip replacement. Acta Anaesthes Scand 1995; 39:390-395

86.        Engel JM, Hohaus T, Ruwoldt R, Menges T, Jurgensen I, Hempelmann G: Regional hemostatic status and blood requirements after total knee arthroplasty with and without tranexamic acid or aprotinin. Anesth Analg 2001; 92:775-780

87.        Englberger L, Markart P, Eckstein FS, Immer FF, Berdat PA, Carrel TP: Aprotinin reduces blood loss in off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002; 22:545-551

88.        Engstrom KG, Appelblad M, Brorsson, B: Mechanisms behind operating room blood transfusions in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients with insignificant bleeding.? J Cardiothorac Vasc Anes 2002; 16:539-544

89.        Ereth MH, Nuttall GA, Klindworth JT, MacVeigh I, Santrach PJ, Orszulak TA, Harmsen WS, Oliver W Jr: Does the platelet-activated clotting test (Hemo-STATUS) predict blood loss and platelet dysfunction associated with cardiopulmonary bypass? Anesth Analg 1997; 85:257-264

90.        Ereth MH, Nuttall GA, Santrach PJ, Klindworth JT, Oliver WC Jr, Schaff HV: The relation between the platelet-activated clotting test (HemoSTATUS) and blood loss after cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology 1998; 88:962-969

91.        Estella NM, Berry DL, Baker BW, Wali AT, Belfort MA: Normovolemic hemodilution before cesarean hysterectomy for placenta percreta. Obstet Gynecol 1997; 90:669-670

92.        Etchason J, Petz L, Keeler E, Calhoun L, Kleinman S, Snider C, Fink A, Brook R: The cost effectiveness of preoperative autologous blood donations. N Engl J Med 1995; 332:719-724

93.        Faris PM, Ritter MA, Abels RI: The effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on perioperative transfusion requirements in patients having a major orthopaedic operation. The American Erythropoietin Study Group. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1996; 78:62-72

94.        Farrer A, Spark JI, Scott DJ: Autologous blood transfusion: the benefits to the patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. J Vasc Nurs 1997; 15:111-115

95.        Feagan BG, Wong CJ, Kirkley A, Johnston DW, Smith FC, Whitsitt P, Wheeler SL, Lau CY: Erythropoietin with iron supplementation to prevent allogeneic blood transfusion in total hip joint arthroplasty. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133:845-854

96.        Ferraris VA, Ferraris SP, Joseph O, Wehner P, Mentzer RM Jr: Aspirin and postoperative bleeding after coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Surg 2002; 235:820-827

97.        Ferraz-Neto BH, Silva ED, Afonso RC, Gregory FH, Meira-Filho SP, Macedo CP, Parra OM, Leitao RM, Saad WA: Acute normovolemic intraoperative hemodilution in liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 1999; 31:3069-3070

98.        Findlay JY, Rettke SR, Ereth MH, Plevak DJ, Krom RA, Kufner RP: Aprotinin reduces red blood cell transfusion in orthotopic liver transplantation: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Liver Transpl 2001; 7:802-807

99.        Fitzsimmons MG, Peterfreund RA, Raines DE: Aprotinin administration and pulmonary thromboembolism during orthotopic liver transplantation: report of two cases. Anesth Analg 2001; 92:1418-1421

100.    Florentino-Pineda I, Blakemore LC, Thompson GH, Poe-Kochert C, Adler P, Tripi P: The Effect of e-aminocaproic acid on perioperative blood loss in patients with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing posterior spinal fusion: a preliminary prospective study. Spine 2001; 26:1147-1151

101.    Ford SM, Unsworth-White MJ, Aziz T, Tooze JA, van Besouw JP, Bevan DH, Treasure T: Platelet pheresis is not a useful adjunct to blood-sparing strategies in cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2002; 16:321-329

102.    Fox JS, Amaranath L, Hoeltge GA, Andrish JT: Autologous blood transfusion and intraoperative cell salvage in a patient with homozygous sickle cell disease. Cleve Clin J Med 1994; 61:137-140

103.    Franchini M, de Gironcoli M, Lippi G, Manzato F, Aprili G, Gandini G: Prophylactic use of desmopressin in surgery of six patients with symptomatic heterozygous factor XI deficiency. Haematologica 2000; 85:106-107

104.    Friederich PW, Henny CP, Messelink EJ, Geerdink MG, Keller T, Kurth KH, Buller HR, Levi M: Effect of recombinant activated factor VII on perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing retropubic prostatectomy: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. Lancet. 2003; 361:201-205

105.    Garcia L, Sabate A, Domenech P, Martinez Brotons F, Drudis R, Jaurrieta E: Aprotinin in orthotopic liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 1995; 27:2290-2291

106.    Garcia-Huete L, Domenech P, Sabate A, Martinez-Brotons F, Jaurrieta E, Figueras J: The prophylactic effect of aprotinin on intraoperative bleeding in liver transplantation: a randomized clinical study. Hepatology 1997; 26:1143-1148

107.    Gardner A, Gibbs N, Evans C, Bell R: Relative cost of autologous red cell salvage versus allogeneic red cell transfusion during abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Anaesth Intensive Care 2000; 28:646-649

108.    Gaudino M, Luciani N, Piancone FL, Bruno P, Rossi M, Schiavello R, Possati G: Perioperative management of a patient with Werlhof disease undergoing myocardial revascularization. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1999; 40:227-228

109.    Gelb AB, Roth RI, Levin J, London MJ, Noall RA, Hauck WW, Cloutier M, Verrier E, Mangano DT: Changes in blood coagulation during and following cardiopulmonary bypass. Am J Clin Pathol 1996; 106:87-99

110.    Gerrah R, Shargal Y, Elami A: Impaired oxygenation and increased hemolysis after cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Ann Thorac Surg 2003; 76:523-527

111.    Gilbert JB, Malkowicz SB, Wein AJ: Cell saver and radical retropubic prostatectomy: analysis of cost-effectiveness. Urology 1995; 46:542-544

112.    Giurati G, Zanetta G, Caspani L, Landon F, Pellegrino A, Baglioni S, Mangioni C: Autologous blood transfusion in patients undergoing radical hysterectomy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1995; 102:64-65

113.    Glazier DB, Ciocca RG, Gosin JS, Murphy DP, Graham AM: Elective aortic surgery with minimal banked blood. Am Surg 1998; 64:171-174

114.    Godet G, Fleron MH, Vicaut E, Zubicki A, Bertrand M, Riou B, Kieffer E, Coriat P: Risk factors for acute postoperative renal failure in thoracic or thoracoabdominal aortic surgery: a prospective study. Anesth Analg 1997; 85:1227-1232

115.    Goh M, Kleer CG, Kielczewski P, Wojno KJ, Kim K, Oesterling JE: Autologous blood donation prior to anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy: is it necessary? Urology 1997; 49:569-573

116.    Goldstein DJ, DeRosa CM, Mongero LB, Weinberg AD, Michler RE, Rose EA, Oz MC, Smith CR: Safety and efficacy of aprotinin under conditions of deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1995; 110:1615-1621

117.    Goldstein DJ, Oz MC, Smith CR, Friedlander JP, De Rosa CM, Mongero LB, Delphin E: Safety of repeat aprotinin administration for LVAD recipients undergoing cardiac transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg 1996; 61:692-695

118.    Goldstein DJ, Seldomridge JA, Chen JM, Catanese KA, DeRosa CM, Weinberg AD, Smith CR, Rose EA, Levin HR, Oz MC: Use of aprotinin in LVAD recipients reduces blood loss, blood use, and perioperative mortality. Ann Thorac Surg 1995; 59:1063-1067

119.    Gombotz H, Gries M, Sipurzynski S, Fruhwald S, Rehak P: Preoperative treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin or predeposit of autologous blood in women undergoing primary hip replacement. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2000; 44:737-742

120.    Good L, Peterson E, Lisander B: Tranexamic acid decreases external blood loss but not hidden blood loss in total knee replacement. Br J Anaesth 2003; 90:596-599

121.    Goodnough LT, Monk TG, Sicard G, Satterfield SA, Allen B, Anderson CB, Thompson RW, Flye W, Martin K: Intraoperative salvage in patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: an analysis of cost and benefit. J Vasc Surg 1996; 24:213-218

122.    Goodnough LT, Price TH, Friedman KD, Johnston M, Ciavarella D, Khan N, Sacher R, Vogler WR, Wissel M, Abels RI: A phase III trial of recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in non-anemic orthopedic patients subjected to aggressive removal of blood for autologous use: Dose, response, toxicity, and efficacy. Transfusion 1994; 34:66-71

123.    Gravlee GP, Arora S, Lavendar SW, Mills SA, Hudspeth AS, Cordell AR, James RL, Brockschmidt JK, Stuart JJ: Predictive value of blood clotting tests in cardiac surgical patients. Ann Thorac Surg 1994; 58:216-221

124.    Gray CL, Amling CL, Polston GR, Powell CR, Kane CJ: Intraoperative cell salvage in radical retropubic prostatectomy. Urology 2001; 58:740-745

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