Practice Advisory for Perioperative Visual Loss Associated with Spine Surgery

American Society of Anesthesiologists




1.            Abbott MA, MCLaren AD, Algie T: Intra-ocular pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass - a comparison of crystalloid and colloid priming solutions. Anaesthesia 1994; 49:343-346

2.            Abraham M, Sakhuja N, Sinha S, Rastogi S: Unilateral visual loss after cervical spine surgery. J Neurosurg Anesth 2003; 15:319-322

3.            Alexandrakis G, Lam BL: Bilateral posterior ischemic optic neuropath after spinal surgery. Am J Ophthalm 1999; 127:354-355

4.            Bekar A, Tureyen K, Aksoy K: Unilateral blindness due to patient positioning during cervical syringomyelia surgery: unilateral blindness after prone position. J Neurosurg Anesthes 1996; 8:227-229

5.            Bradish CF, Flowers M: Central retinal artery occlusion in association with osteogenesis imperfecta. Spine 1987; 12:193-194

6.            Brown RH, Schauble JF, Miller NR: Anemia and hypotension as contributors to perioperative loss of vision. Anesthesioiogy 1994; 80:222-226

7.            Chang, SH, Miller NR: The incidence of visual loss due to perioperative ischemic optic neuropathy associated with spine surgery: The Johns Hopkins Hospital Experience. Spine 2005; 30:1299-1302

8.            Cheng MA, Sigurdson W, Tempelhoff R, Lauryssen C: Visual loss after spine surgery: a survey. Neurosurg 2000; 46:625-631

9.            Dilger JA, Tetzlaff, JE, Bell GR, Kosmorsky GS, Agnor RC, O'Hara JF: Ischaemic optic neuropathy after spinal fusion. Can J Anaesth 1998; 45:63-66

10.        Dunker S, Hsu HY, Sebag J, Sadun AA: Perioperative risk factors for posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am Coll Surg 2002; 194:705-710

11.        Grossman W, Ward WT: Central retinal artery occlusion after scoliosis surgery with a horseshoe headrest. Spine 1993; 18:1226-1228

12.        Hoski JJ, Eismont FJ, Green BA: Blindness as a complication of intraoperative positioning. J Bone Joint Surg 1993; 75:1231-1232

13.        Huber JF, Grob D: Bilateral cortical blindness after lumbar spine surgery. Spine 1998; 23:1807-1809

14.        Jampol LM, Goldbaum M, Rosenberg M, Bahr R: Ischemia of ciliary arterial circulation from ocular compression. Arch Ophthalmol 1975; 93:1311-1317

15.        Katz DM, Trobe JD, Cornblath WT, Kline LB: Ischemic optic neuropathy after lumbar spine surgery. Arch Ophthalmol 1994; 112:925-931

16.        Katzman SS, Moschonas CG, Dzioba RB: Amaurosis secondary to massive blood loss after lumbar spine surgery. Spine 1994; 19:468-469

17.        Kumar N, Jivan S, Topping N, Morrell AJ: Blindness and rectus muscle damage following spinal surgery. Am J Ophthalmol 2004; 138:889-891

18.        Lee AG: Ischemic optic neuropathy following lumbar spine surgery? J Neurosurg 1995; 83:348-349

19.        Lee LA, Lam AM: Unilateral blindness after prone lumbar spine surgery. Anesthesiology 2001; 95:793-795

20.        Lee LA: ASA postoperative visual loss registry: preliminary analysis of factors associated with spine operations. ASA Newsletter 2003; 67:1-3

21.        Locastro A, Novak KD, Biglan AW: Central retinal artery occlusion in child after general anesthesia. Am J Ophthalmol 1991; 112:91-92

22.        Murphy MA: Bilateral posterior ischemic optic neuropathy after lumbar spine surgery. Ophthalmology 2003; 110:1454-1457

23.        Myers MA, Hamilton SR., Bogosian AJ, Smith CH, Wagner TA: Visual loss as a complication of spinal surgery: a review of 37 cases. Spine 1997; 22:1325-1329

24.        Roth S, Nunez R, Schreider BD: Unexplained visual loss after lumbar spinal fusion. J Neurosurg Anesth 1997; 9:346-348

25.        Roth S, Thisted RA, Erickson JP, Black S, Schreider BD: Eye injuries after non-ocular surgery: a study of 60,965 anesthetics from 1988-1992. Anesthesiology 1996; 85:1020-1027

26.        Stevens WR, Glazer PA, Kelley SSD, Leitman TM, Bradford DS: Ophthalmologic complications after spinal surgery. Spine 1997; 22:1319-1324

27.        Wolfe SW, Lospinuso MF, Burke SW: Unilateral blindness as a complication of patient positioning for spinal surgery. Spine 1992; 17:600-605