Practice Advisory for Perioperative Management of Patients with Cardiac Rhythm Devices:  Bibliography

American Society of Anesthesiologists


1.            Achenbach S, Moshage W, Diem B, Bieberle T, Schibgilla V, Bachmann K: Effects of magnetic resonance imaging on cardiac pacemakers and electrodes. Am Heart J 1997, 134:467-473

2.            Adamec R, Haefliger JM, Killisch JP, Niederer J, Jaquet P: Damaging effect of therapeutic radiation on programmable pacemakers. PACE 1982; 5:146-150

3.            Ahern TS, Luckett C, Ehrlich S, Pena EA: Use of bipolar electrocautery in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: No reason to inactivate detection or therapies. PACE 1999; 22:776

4.            Alagona P, Toole JC, Maniscalco BS: Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with a pacemaker. PACE 1989; 12:619

5.            Alyward P, Blood R, Tonkin A: Complications of defibrillation with permanent pacemaker in situ. PACE 1979; 2:462-464

6.            Avery JE: Loss prevention case of the month. Not my responsibility! J Tenn Med Assoc 1988; 81:523

7.            Bailey AG, Lacey SR: Intraoperative pacemaker failure in an infant. Can J Anaesth 1991; 38:912-913

8.            Baller MR, Kirsner KM: Anesthetic implications of implanted pacemakers: a case study. AANA J. 1995; 63:209-216

9.            Barold SS, Falkoff MD, Ong LS, Heinle RA: Magnet unresponsive pacemaker endless loop tachycardia. Am Heart J 1988; 116:726-732

10.        Barold SS, Falkoff MD, Ong LS, Heinle RA: Paradoxical induction of endless loop tachycardia by magnet application over DDD pacemaker. PACE 1986; 9:503-510

11.        Barold SS, Ong LS, Scovil J, Heinle RA, Wright T: Reprogramming of an implanted pacemaker following external defibrillation. PACE 1978; 1:514-520

12.        Batra YK, Bali IM: Effect of coagulating and cutting current on a demand pacemaker during transurethral resection of the prostata: A case report. Can Anaesth Soc J 1978; 25:65-66

13.        Belott PH, Sands S, Warren J: Resetting of DDD pacemakers due to EMI. PACE 1984; 7:169-172

14.        Bourke J, Gold RG, Adams PC, Bexton RS: Diathermy induced loss of DDD pacemaker identity. Ann Thorac Surg 1985; 39:37

15.        Bowes R, Bennett D: Effect of transvenous atrioventricular nodal ablation on the function of implanted pacemakers. PACE 1985; 8:811-814

16.        Brooks C, Mutter M: Pacemaker failure associated with therapeutic radiation. Am J Emerg Med 1988; 6:591-593

17.        Casavant D, Haffajee C, Stevens S, Pacetti P: Aborted implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock during facial electrosurgery. PACE 1998, 21:1325-1326

18.        Celentano WJ, Jahr JS, Nossaman BD: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in a patient with a pacemaker. Anesth Analg 1992; 74:770-772

19.        Chang AC, McAreavey D, Tripodi D, Fananapazir L: Radiofrequency catheter atrioventricular node ablation in patients with permanent cardiac pacing systems. PACE 1994; 17:65-69

20.        Chauvin M, Crenner F, Brechenmacher C: Interaction between permanent cardiac pacing and electrocautery: the significance of electrode position. PACE. 1992; 15:2028-2033

21.        Chew EW, Troughear RH, Kuchar DL, Thorburn CW: Inappropriate rate change in minute ventilation rate responsive pacemakers due to interference by cardiac monitors. PACE 1997; 20:276-282

22.        Chin MC, Rosenqvist M, Lee MA, Griffin JC, Langberg JJ: The effect of radiofrequency catheter ablation on permanent pacemakers: an experimental study. PACE. 1990; 13:23-29

23.        Cohen TJ, Chengot T, Quan C, Peller AP: Elevation of defibrillation thresholds with propofol during implantable cardioverter-defibrillator testing. J Invasive Cardiol 2000; 12:121-123

24.        Cooper D, Wilkoff B, Castle L, Streem S, Baelco K, Matranga D, Shimokochi D, Jacobs B, Morant V, Maloney J: Safety of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with permanent pacemakers. PACE 1987; 10:443

25.        Cooper D, Wilkoff B, Masterson M, Castle L, Belco K, Simmons T, Morant V, Streem S, Maloney J: Effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on cardiac pacemakers and its safety in patients with implanted cardiac pacemakers. PACE 1988; 11:1607-1616

26.        Das G, Eaton J: Pacemaker malfunction following transthoracic countershock. PACE 1981; 4:487-490

27.        de Chillou C, Sadoul N Beurrier D, Bizeau O, Aliot E, Dodinot B: Effects of radiofrequency catheter ablation on the behavior of permanent pacemakers. PACE 1996; 19:680

28.        Delhumeau A, Ronceray S, Moreau X, Cottineau C, Cavellat M: [Final arrest of a pacemaker after use of electrocautery] Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 1988; 7:162-164

29.        Domino KB, Smith TC: Electrocautery-induced reprogramming of a pacemaker using a precordial magnet. Anesth Analg 1983; 62:609-612

30.        Drach GW, Weber C, Donovan JM: Treatment of pacemaker patients with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: experience from 2 continents. J Urol 1990; 143:895-896

31.        Dresner DL, Lebowitz PW: Atrioventricular sequential pacemaker inhibition by transurethral electrosurgery. Anesthesiology 1988; 68:599-601

32.        El-Gamal HM, Dufresne RG, Saddler K: Electrosurgery, pacemakers and ICDs: A survey of precautions and complications experienced by cutaneous surgeons. Dermatol Surg 2001; 27:385-390

33.        Ellenbogen KA, Wood MA, Stambler BS: Acute effects of radiofrequency ablation of atrial arrhythmias on implanted permanent pacing systems. PACE 1996; 19:1287-1295

34.        Epstein MR, Mayer JE Jr, Duncan BW: Use of an ultrasonic scalpel as an alternative to electrocautery in patients with pacemakers. Ann Thorac Surg 1998; 65:1802-1804

35.        Erdman S, Levinsky L, Servadio C, Stoupel E, Levy MJ: Safety precautions in the management of patients with pacemakers when electrocautery operations are performed. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1988; 167:311-314

36.        Erlebacher JA, Cahill PT, Pannizzo F, Knowles R Jr: Effect of magnetic resonance imaging on DDD pacemakers. Am J Cardiol 1986; 57:437-440

37.        Fein RL: Transurethral electrocautery procedures in patients with cardiac pacemakers. JAMA 1967; 202:101-103

38.        Fernado B, Emery RW, Copeland JG, Fuller JK: Direct current cardioversion. Ann Thorac Surg 1984; 37:521

39.        Fetter J, Aram G, Holmes DR, Gray J: The effects of nuclear magnetic resonance imagers on external and implanted pulse generators. PACE 1984; 7:720-727

40.        Fetter J, Patterson D, Aram G, Hayes DL: Effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on single chamber rate response and dual chamber pacemakers. PACE 1989; 12:1494-501

41.        Finfer SR: Pacemaker failure on induction of anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 1991, 66:509-512

42.        Fontaine JM, Mohamed FB, Gottlieb, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE.: Rapid ventricular pacing in a pacemaker patient undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. PACE 1998, 21:1336-1339

43.        Garcia-Bolao I, Albaladejo V, Benito A, Alegria E, Zubieta JL: Magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with a dual-chamber pacemaker. Acta Cardiologica 1998; 53:33-35

44.        Giedwoyn JO: Pacemaker failure following external defibrillation. Circulation 1971; 44:293

45.        Gimbel JR, Johnson D, Levine PA, Wilkoff BL: Safe performance of magnetic resonance imaging on five patients with permanent cardiac pacemakers. PACE 1996, 19:913-919

46.        Gimbel JR, Lorig RJ, Wilkoff BL: Safe magnetic resonance imaging of pacemaker patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995; 25:11A

47.        Goldberg ME, McSherry RT, O'Connor ME: Electrocautery and pacemaker reprogramming. Anesth Analg 1984; 63:541-542

48.        Goldberg RJ, Badger JM. Major depressive disorder in patients with the implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Two cases treated with ECT. Psychosomatics 1993; 34:273-277

49.        Gould L, Patel S, Gomes GI, Chokshi AB: Pacemaker failure following external defibrillation. PACE 1981; 4:575-577

50.        Greene LF, Merideth J: Transurethral operations employing high frequency electrosurgical currents in patients with demand cardiac pacemakers. J Urol 1972; 108:446-448

51.        Hayes DL, Charboneau JW, Lewis BD, Asirvatham SJ, Dupuy DE, Lexvold NY: Radiofrequency treatment of hepatic neoplasms in patients with permanent pacemakers. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001; 76:950-952

52.        Hayes DL, Holmes DR, Jr., Gray JE: Effect of 1.5 Telsa nuclear magnetic resonance imaging scanner on implanted permanent pacemakers. J Am Coll Cardiol 1987, 10:782-786

53.        Hayes DL, Trusty J, Christiansen J, Osborn MJ, Vlietra RE: A prospective study of electrocautery's effect on pacemaker function. PACE 1987; 10:686

54.        Heller LI: Surgical electrocautery and the runaway pacemaker syndrome. PACE 1990, 13:1084-1085

55.        Hildner FJ, Linhart JW, Poole DO: Irradiation of pulmonary tumor with overlying artificial cardiac pacemaker. Radiology 1969; 92:148

56.        Holmes DR, Hayes DL, Gray JE, Merideth J: The effects of magnetic resonance imaging on implantable pulse generators. PACE 1986; 9:360-370

57.        Hurkmans CW, Scheepers E, Springorum BG, De Ruiter GS, Uiterwaal HA: Influence of therapeutic irradiation on the latest generation of pacemakers. Heart Rhythm 2004; 1(Suppl):S54

58.        Inbar S, Larson J, Burt T, Mafee M, Ezri MD: Case report: nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with a pacemaker. Am J Med Sci 1993; 305:174-175

59.        Kam PC: Anaesthetic management of a patient with an automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator in situ. Br J Anaesth 1997; 78:102-106

60.        Katzenberg CA, Marcus FI, Heusinkveld RS, Mammana RB: Pacemaker failure due to radiation therapy. PACE 1982; 5:156-159

61.        Kellow NH: Pacemaker failure during transurethral resection of the prostate. Anesthesia 1993; 48:136-138

62.        Kleinman B, Hamilton J, Heriman R, Olshansky B, Justus D, Desai R: Apparent failure of a precordial magnet and pacemaker programmer to convert a DDD pacemaker to VOO mode during the use of the electrosurgical unit. Anesthesiology 1997; 86:247-250

63.        Kohler F: Cardiac pacemakers and electrosurgery. JAMA 1965; 193:199

64.        Lamas GA, Antman EM, Gold JP, Braunwald NS, Collins JJ: Pacemaker back up mode reversion and injury during cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 1986; 41:155-157

65.        Langberg J, Abber J, Thuroff JW, Griffin JC: The effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on pacemaker function. PACE 1987; 10:1142-1146

66.        Lau FYK, Bilitch M, Wintraub HJ: Protection of implanted pacemakers from excessive electrical energy DC shock. Am J Cardiol 1969; 32:244

67.        Lauck G, Sommer T, Wolke S, Luderitz B, Manz M: Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with implanted permanent pacemakers. PACE 1995; 18(suppl):1168

68.        Lauck G, von Smekal A, Wolke S, Seelos KC, Jung W, Manz M, Luderitz B: Effects of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging on cardiac pacemakers. PACE 1995; 18:1549-1555

69.        Lee RW, Huang SK, Mechling E, Bazgan I: Runaway atrioventricular sequential pacemaker after radiation therapy. Am J Med 1986; 81:883-886

70.        Lerner SM: Suppression of a demand pacemaker by transurethral electrocautery. Anesth Analg 1973; 52:703-706

71.        Levine PA, Balady GJ, Lazar HL, Belott PH, Roberts AJ: Electrocautery and pacemakers: Management of the paced patient subject to electrocautery. Ann Thorac Surg 1986; 41:313-317

72.        Levine PA, Barold SS, Fletcher RD, Talbot P: Adverse acute and chronic effects of electrical defibrillation and cardioversion on implanted unipolar cardiac pacing systems. J Am Coll Cardiol 1983; 1:1413-1422

73.        Levine PA, Seltzer JP, Barold SS: Adverse interaction between cardiac pacing systems and defibrillation. PACE 1983; 6:54

74.        Lichter I, Borrie J, Millar WM: Radiofrequency hazards with cardiac pacemakers. Br Med J 1965; 2:1513-1518

75.        Luechinger R, Duru F, Scheidegger MB, Boesiger P, Candinas R: Force and torque effects of a 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner on cardiac pacemakers and ICDs. PACE 2001; 24:199-205

76.        Mangar D, Atlas GM, Kane PB: Electrocautery-induced pacemaker malfunction during surgery. Can J Anaesth 1991; 38:616-618

77.        Marbach JR, Meoz-Mendez RT, Huffman JK, Hudgins PT, Almond PR: The effects of cardiac pacemakers of ionizing radiation and electromagnetic interference from radiotherapy machines. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1978; 4:1055-1058

78.        Markewitz A, Weber W, Wildgans H, Weinhold C: Does extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy affect pacemaker function? PACE 1987; 10:443

79.        Martin ET, Coman JA, Shellock FG, Pulling CC, Fair R, Jenkins K: Magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac pacemaker safety at 1.5-Telsa. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 43:1315-1324

80.        Maxted KJ: The effect of therapeutic x-radiation on a sample of pacemaker generators. Phys Med Biol 1984; 29:1143

81.        Moore S, Firstenberg M, Simmons TW, Trohman R: The interaction between radiofrequency ablation and permanent pacemakers. Circulation 1992; 86:449

82.        Moore S, Firstenberg MS, Trohman RG, Sterba R, Maloney JD: Long-term effects of radiofrequency catheter ablation on previously implanted pacemakers. PACE 1993; 16:947

83.        Muller-Runkel R, Orsolini G, Kalokhe UP: Monitoring the radiation dose to a multiprogrammable pacemaker during radical radiation therapy: a case report. PACE 1990; 13:1466-1470

84.        Mychaskiw G, Eichhorn JH: Interaction of an implanted pacemaker with a transesophageal atrial pacemaker: Report of a case. J Clin Anesth 1999; 11:669-671

85.        Ngu SL, O'Meley P, Johnson N, Collins C: Pacemaker function during irradiation: in vivo and in vitro effect. Australas Radiol 1993; 37:105-107

86.        O'Donoghue JK: Inhibition of a demand pacemaker by electrosurgery. Chest 1973; 64:664-666

87.        Olufolabi AJ, Charlton GA, Allen SA, Mettam IM, Roberts PR: Use of implantable cardioverter defibrillator and anti-arrhythmic agents in a parturient. Br J Anaesth 2002; 89:652-655

88.        Orland HJ, Jones D: Cardiac pacemaker induced ventricular fibrillation during surgical diathermy. Anaesth Intens Care 1975; 3:321-326

89.        Ozeren M, Dogan OV, Duzgun C, Yucel E: Use of an ultrasonic scalpel in the open-heart reoperation of a patient with pacemaker. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2002 Apr;21(4):761-2.

90.        Palac RT, Hwang MH, Klodnycky ML, Loeb HS: Delayed pulse generator malfunction after DC countershock. PACE 1981; 4:163-167

91.        Pavlicek W, Geisinger M, Castle L, Borkowski GP, Meaney TF, Bream BL, Gallagher JH: The effects of nuclear magnetic resonance on patients with cardiac pacemakers. Radiology 1993; 147:149-153

92.        Pfeiffer D, Tebbenjohanns J, Schumacher B , Jung W, Luderitz B: Pacemaker function during radiofrequency ablation. PACE 1995; 18:1037-1044

93.        Pfeiffer D, Tebbenjohanns J, Schumacher B, Jung W, Manz M, Luderitz B: Pacemaker behaviour during radiofrequency current delivery. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994; 23(Suppl A):324A

94.        Pourhamidi AH: Radiation effect on implanted pacemakers. Chest 1983; 84:499-500

95.        Purday JP, Towey RM: Apparent pacemaker failure caused by activation of ventricular threshold test by a magnetic instrument mat during general anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 1992; 69:645-646

96.        Quertermous T, Megahy MS, Das Gupta DS, Griem ML: Pacemaker failure resulting from radiation damage. Radiology 1983; 148:257-258

97.        Raitt MH, Stalzer KJ, Laramore GE, Bardy GH, Dolack GL, Poole JE, Kudenchuk PJ: Runaway pacemaker during high-energy neutron radiation therapy. Chest 1994; 106:955-957

98.        Rodriguez F, Filimonov A, Henning A, Coughlin C, Greenberg M: Radiation-induced effects in multiprogrammable pacemakers and implantable defibrillators. PACE 1991; 14:2143-2153

99.        Roguin A, Zviman MM, Meininger GR, Rodrigues ER, Dickfeld TM, Bluemke DA, Lardo A, Berger RD, Calkins H, Halperin HR: Modern pacemaker and implantable cardioverter/defibrillator systems can be magnetic resonance imaging safe. Circulation 2004; 110:475-482

100.    Rozner MA. Review of electrical interference in implanted cardiac devices. PACE 2003; 26:923-925

101.    Rozner MA, Burton AW, Kumar AJ. Pacemaker complication during MRI. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45:161-162

102.    Rubin JM, Miller ED: Intraoperative pacemaker malfunction during total hip arthroplasty. Anesth Analg 1995; 80:410-412

103.    Samain E, Marty J, Souron V, Rosencher N, Eyrolle L: Intraoperative pacemaker malfunction during a shoulder arthroscopy. Anesthesiology 2000; 93:306-307

104.    Shapiro WA, Roizen MF, Singleton MA, Morady F, Bainton CR, Gaynor RL: Intraoperative pacemaker complications. Anesthesiology 1985; 63:319-322

105.    Shellock FG, O'Neil M, Ivans V, Kelly D, O'Connor M, Toay L, Crues JV: Cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators are unaffected by operation of an extremity MR imaging system. Am J Roentgenol 1999; 172:165-170

106.    Smith CL, Frawley G, Hamar A: Diathermy and the telectronics "META" pacamaker. Anaesth Intens Care 1993; 21:452-454

107.    Sommer T, Valhaus C, Lauck G, von Smekal A, Reinke M, Hofer U, Block W, Traber F, Schneider C, Gieseke J, Jung W, Schild H: MR imaging and cardiac pacemakers: In vitro evaluation and in vivo studies in 51 patients at 0.5 T. Radiology 2000; 215:869-879

108.    Sowton E, Gray K, Preston T: Electrical interference in non-competitive pacemakers. Br Heart J 1970; 32:626-632

109.    Stoller ML, Stackl W, Langberg JJ, Griffin JC: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy performed on woman with a cardiac pacemaker. J Urol 1988; 140:1510-1511

110.    Theiss M, Wirth MP, Frohmuller HG: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with cardiac pacemakers. J Urol 1990; 143:479-480

111.    Trohman RG, Simmons TW, Moore SL, Firstenberg MS, Williams D, Maloney JD: Catheter ablation of atrioventricular junction using radiofrequency energy and a bilateral cardiac approach. Am J Cardiol 1992; 70:1438-1443

112.    Vahlhaus C, Sommer T, Lewalter T, Schimpf R, Schumacher B, Jung W, Luderitz B: Interference with cardiac pacemakers by magnetic resonance imaging: are there irreversible changes at 0.5 Tesla? PACE 2001; 24:489-495.

113.    Vaidyanathan S, Hirst R, Parsons KF, Singh G, Soni BM, Oo T, Zaidi A, Watt JW, Sett P: Bilateral extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in a spinal cord injury patient with a cardiac pacemaker. Spinal Cord 2001; 39:286-289

114.    Val-Majias JE, Diehl T, Quesada LC: Long-term effects of RF ablation on pacemakers leads. PACE 1996; 19:635

115.    Van Gelder B, Bracke FALE, El Gamal MIH: Upper rate pacing after radiofrequency catheter ablation in a minute venitlation rate adaptive DDD pacemaker. PACE 1994; 17:1437-1440

116.    Van Gelder LM, El Gamal MIH: Magnet application, a cause of persistent arrhythmias in physiological pacemakers. PACE 1982; 5:710

117.    Van Hemel NM, Hamerlijnck RPHM, Pronk KJ, Van der Venn EP: Upper limit ventricular stimulation in respiratory rate responsive pacing due to electrocautery. PACE 1989, 12:1720-1723

118.    Vanerio G, Maloney J, Rashidi, McCowan R, Castle L, Morant V, Wilkoff B, Simmons T: The effects of percutaneous catheter ablation on preexisting permanent pacemakers. PACE 1990; 13:1637-1645

119.    Vassolas G, Roth RA, Venditti FJ Jr: Effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on implantable cardioverter defibrillator. PACE 1993; 16:1245-1248

120.    Venditti FJ Jr, Martin D, Long AL, Roth RA: Renal extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy performed in patient with implantable cardioverter defibrillator. PACE 1991; 14:1323-1325

121.    Venselaar JLM, Van Kerkoerle HLJM, Vet AJTM: Radiation damage to pacemakers from radiotherapy. PACE 1987; 10:538-542

122.    von Smekal A, Wolke S, Seelos KC, Hermans J, Lauch G, David P, Reiser M, Biersack HJ: Cardiac pacemaker in mangetic resonance studies: Influence of the static magnetic field on hardware components. Eur Heart J 1993; 14:335

123.    Wajszczuk WJ, Mowry FM, Dugan NL: Deactivation of a demand pacemaker by transurethral electrocautery. N Eng J Med 1969; 280:34-35

124.    Walz BJ, Reder RE, Pastore JO, Littman P, Johnson R: Cardiac pacemakers: does radiation therapy affect performance? JAMA 1975; 234:72-73

125.    Webb CR, Lynch JS, Littleton RH, Kelly C, Goldberg AD: Effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on cardiac pacemakers. PACE 1987; 10:444

126.    Wilson JH, Lattner S, Jacob R, Stewart R: Electrocautery does not interfere with the function of the automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Ann Thorac Surg 1991; 51:225-226

127.    Wolfe DA, McCutcheon MJ, Plumb VJ, Kay N: Radiofrequency current may induce exit block in chronically implanted ventricular leads. PACE 1995; 18:919

128.    Wong DT, Middleton W: Electrocautery-induced tachycardia in a rate-responsive pacemaker. Anesthesiology 2001; 94:10-11

129.    Zullo M: Function of ventricular pacemakers during resuscitation. PACE 1990; 13:736-744