Practice Guidelines for Postanesthetic Care:  Bibliography

American Society of Anesthesiologists


1.              Abdulatif M: Recovery characteristics after early administration of anticholinesterases during intense mivacurium-induced neuromuscular block. Br J Anaesth 74:20-25, 1995

2.              Abramowitz MD, Oh TH, Epstein BS, Ruttimann UE, Friendly DS: The antiemetic effect of droperidol following outpatient strabismus surgery in children. Anesthesiology 59:579-583, 1983

3.              Alexander JJ, Spence AA, Parikh RK, Stuart B: The role of airway closure in postoperative hypoxaemia. Br J Anaesth 45:34-39, 1973

4.              Alfonsi P, Hongnat JM, Lebrault C, Chauvin M: The effects of pethidine, fentanyl and lignocaine on postanaesthetic shivering. Anaesthesia 50:214-217, 1995

5.              Alfonsi P, Sessler DI, Du Manoir B, Levron JC, Le Moing JP, Chauvin M: The effects of meperidine and sufentanil on the shivering threshold in postoperative patients. Anesthesiology 89:43-48, 1998

6.              Ali HH, Kitz RJ: Evaluation of recovery from non-depolarizing neuromuscular block using digital neuromuscular transmission analyzer: preliminary report. Anesth Analg 52:740-743, 1973

7.              Alon E, Baitella L, Hossli G: Double-blind study of the reversal of midazolam-supplemented general anaesthesia with Ro 15-1788. Br J Anaesth 59:455-458, 1987

8.              Alon E, Buchser E, Herrera E, Christiaens F, De Pauw C, Ritter L, Hulstaert F, Grimaudo V: Tropisetron for treating established postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anesth Analg 86:617-623, 1998

9.              Alon E, Himmelseher S: Ondansetron in the treatment of postoperative vomiting: a randomized, double-blind comparison with droperidol and metoclopramide. Anesth Analg 75:561-565, 1992

10.           Alon E, Kocian R, Nett PC, Koechli OR, Baettig U, Grimaudo V. Tropisetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in women undergoing gynecologic surgery. Anesth Analg 82:338-341, 1996

11.           Alon E, Lenzlinger PM, Atanassoff PG: Ondansetron 4 mg versus 8 mg in the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting after alfentanil-supplemented inhalation anesthesia for minor gynecologic surgery. Anesthesiology 79:A8, 1993

12.           Alon E, Lenzlinger PM, Pasch T: Ondansetron 4 mg vs droperidol 1.25 mg in the prophylaxis of post-operative nausea and vomiting after alfentanil-supplemented inhalation anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 70(suppl 1):A12, 1993

13.           Amar D, Brodman LE, Winikoff SA, Hollinger I: An alternative oxygen delivery system for infants and children in the post-anaesthesia care unit. Can J Anaesth 38:49-53, 1991

14.           Andree RA: Sudden death following naloxone administration. Anesth Analg 59:782-784, 1980

15.           Andrews PJD, Wright DJ, Lamont MC: Flumazenil in the outpatient: a study following midazolam as sedation for upper gastrointestional endoscopy. Anaesthesia 45:445-448, 1990

16.           Ang C, Habre W, Sims C: Tropisetron reduces vomiting after tonsillectomy in children. Br J Anaesth 80:761-763, 1998

17.           Aouad MT, Siddik SS, Rizk LB, Zaytoun GM, Barak AS. The effect of dexamethasone on postoperative vomiting after tonsillectomy. Anesth Analg 92:636-640, 2001

18.           April MM, Callan ND, Nowak DM, Hausdorff MA: The effect of intravenous dexamethasone in pediatric Adenotonsillectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 122:117-120, 1996

19.           Arndt GA, Gerry T, White P: Postoperative reparalysis after rocuronium following nebulized epinephrine. Can J Anaesth 44:321-324, 1997

20.           Astley BA, Hughes R, Payne JP: Antagonism of atracurium-induced neuromuscular blockade by neostigmine or edrophonium. Br J Anaesth 58:1290-1295, 1986

21.           Ayas N, Bergstrom LR, Schwab TR, Narr BJ: Unrecognized severe postoperative hypercapnia: a case of apneic oxygenation. Mayo Clin Proc 73:51-54, 1998

22.           Azar I, Twendozf H: Severe hypertension and multiple arterial premature contractions following naloxone administration. Anesth Analg 58:524-525, 1979

23.           Bach A: Pulse oximetry in the recovery room. Anaesthesia 44:1007, 1989

24.           Bailey HR, Ferguson JA: Prevention of urinary retention by fluid restriction following anorectal operations. Dis Colon Rectum 19:250-252, 1976

25.           Bailey PL, Streisand JB, Pace NL, Bubbers S, East K, Mulder S, Stanley TH: Transdermal scopolamine reduces nausea and vomiting after outpatient laparoscopy. Anesthesiology 72:977-980, 1990

26.           Barst SM, Leiderman JU, Markowitz A, Rosen AM, Abramson AL, Bienkowski RS: Ondansetron with propofol reduces the incidence of emesis in children following tonsillectomy. Can J Anaesth 46:359-362, 1999

27.           Bartelsman JF, Sars PR, Tytgat GN: Flumazenil used for reversal of midazolam-induced sedation in endoscopy outpatients. Gastrointest Endosc 36:S9-12, 1990

28.           Baumann PL, Sung YF: Treatment of postoperative shivering in an ambulatory surgery center. Anesthesiology 77:A45, 1992

29.           Baurain MJ, Barvais L, d'Hollander AA, Hennert D: Impairment of the antagonism of vecuronium-induced paralysis and intraoperative disopyramide administration. Anaesthesia 44:34-36, 1989

30.           Baurain MJ, Dernovoi BS, d'Hollander AA, Barvais L: The influence of atropine dose on recovery from vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. Anesthesiology 77:17-20, 1992

31.           Baurain MJ, Dernovoi BS, d'Hollander AA, Hennart DA: Comparison of neostigmine-induced recovery with spontaneous recovery from mivacurium-induced neuromuscular block. Br J Anaesth 73:791-794, 1994

32.           Baurain MJ, d'Hollander AA, Melot C, Dernovoi BS, Barvais L: Effects of residual concentrations of isoflurane on the reversal of vecuronium induced neuromuscular blockade. Anesthesiology 74:474-478, 1991

33.           Baxendale BR, Vater M, Lavery KM: Dexamethasone reduces pain and swelling following extraction of third molar teeth. Anaesthesia 48:961-964, 1993

34.           Beatty AM, Martin DE, Couch M, Long N: Relevance of oral intake and necessity to void as ambulatory surgical discharge criteria. J Perianesth Nurs 12:413-421, 1997

35.           Bell CMA, Lewis CB: Effects of neostigmine on integrity of ileorectal anastomoses. Br Med J 1:587-589, 1968

36.           Belo S, Koutsoukos G: Combination of ondansetron and droperidol for antiemetic prophylaxis. Anesth Analg 78(suppl):S30, 1994

37.           Berghuis PA, Goritski WJ, Mandel DK, Beerle BJ, Dewhirst WE: Comparison of ondansetron, ephedrine and droperidol for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesthesiology 79:A7, 1993

38.           Berman L, Chernik DA, Cooper SA, Davidson AB et al: Reversal of central benzodiazepine effects by intravenous flumazenil after conscious sedation with midazolam and opioids: a multicenter clinical study. Clin Ther 14:878-894, 1992

39.           Bevan DR, Kahwaji R, Ansermino JM, Reimer E, Smith MF, O'Connor GA, Bevan JC: Residual block after mivacurium with or without edrophonium reversal in adults and children. Anesthesiology 84:362-367, 1996

40.           Bevan JC, Purday JP, Reimer EJ, Bevan DR: Reversal of doxacurium and pancuronium neuromuscular blockade with neostigmine in children. Can J Anaesth 41:1074-1080, 1994

41.           Bevan JC, Tousignant C, Stephenson C, Blackman L, Reimer E, Smith MF, Bevan DR: Dose responses for neostigmine and edrophonium as antagonists of mivacurium in adults and children. Anesthesiology 84:354-361, 1996

42.           Bianchi G, Stenier P: A clinical double-blind study of flumazenil, antagonist of benzodiazepines, in loco-regional anesthesia. Act Anaesth Belg 43:121-129, 1992

43.           Bill KM, Fee JP, Clarke RS: Psychomotor and clinical assessment of flumazenil as an antagonist of midazolam. J R Soc Med 84:277-279, 1991

44.           Birch BR, Anson KM, Clifford E, Miller RA: Day-case surgery: enhanced recovery with flumazenil. J R Soc Med 83:436-438, 1990

45.           Birch BR, Anson KM, Kalmanovitch DV, Cooper J, Miller RA: Sedation for day-case urology: an assessment of patient recovery profiles after midazolam and flumazenil. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 73:373-378, 1991

46.           Birch BR, Miller RA: Walk-in, walk-out day case genito-urinary surgery with sedation reversal: a survey of patient attitudes and morbidity. Br J Urol 74:648-664, 1994

47.           Birkenfeld S, Federico C, Dermansky-Avni Y, Bruck R, Melzer E, Bar-Meir S: Double-blind controlled trial of flumazenil in patients who underwent uper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 35:519-522, 1989

48.           Bissonnette B, Sessler DI: Mild hypothermia does not impair postanesthetic recovery in infants and children. Anesth Analg 76:168-172, 1993

49.           Blair I, Holland R, Lau W, McCarthy N, Chiah TS, Ledwidge D: Oxygen saturation during transfer from operating room to recovery after anesthesia. Anaesth Intens Care 15:147-150, 1987

50.           Blanc VF, Ruest P, Milot J, Jacob JL, Tang A: Antiemetic prophylaxis with promethazine or droperidol in paediatric outpatient strabismus surgery. Can J Anaesth 38:54-60, 1991

51.           Bock M, Muller J, Bach A, Bohrer H, Martin E, Motsch J: Effects of preinduction and intraoperative warming during major laparotomy. Br J Anaesth 80:159-163, 1998

52.           Bodner M, White PF: Antiemetic efficacy of ondansetron after outpatient laparoscopy. Anesth Analg 73:250-254, 1991

53.           Boeke AJ, de Lange JJ, van Druenen B, Langemeijer JJ: Effect of antagonizing residual neuromuscular block by neostigmine and atropine on postoperative vomiting. Br J Anaesth 72:654-656, 1994

54.           Bourke DL, Wurm H, Rosenberg M, Russel J: Intraoperative heat conservation using a reflective blanket. Anesthesiology 60:151-154, 1984

55.           Bradford TH, Robertson K, Norman PF, Meeks GR: Reduction of pain and nausea after laparoscopic sterilization with bupicacaine, metoclopramide, scopolamine, ketorolac, and gastric suctioning. Obstet Gynecol 85(5 pt 1):687-691, 1995

56.           Brandom BW, Taiwo OO, Woelfel SK, Schon H, Gronert BJ, Cook DR: Spontaneous versus edrophonium-induced recovery from paralysis with mivacurium. Anesth Analg 82:999-1002, 1996

57.           Breimer LT, Hennis PJ, Bovill JG, Spierdijk J: The efficacy of flumazenil versus physostigmine after midazolam-alfentanil anaesthesia in man. Eur J Anaesthesiol Suppl 2:109-116, 1988

58.           Britt A, Devenyi AG, Burkhart KK, Close P, Weaver B: Use of flumazenil for reversal of conscious sedation in pediatrics. Gastrointest Endosc 41:334, 1995

59.           Broadman LM, Ceruzzi W, Patane PS, Hannallah RS, Ruttimann U, Friendly D: Metoclopramide reduces the incidence of vomiting following strabismus surgery in children. Anesthesiology 72:245-248, 1990

60.           Brown LT, Purcell GJ, Traugott FM: Hypoxaemia during postoperative recovery using continuous pulse oximetry. Anaesth Intensive Care 18:509-516, 1990

61.           Brown RE Jr, James DJ, Weaver RG, Wilhoit RD, Bauman LA: Low-dose droperidol versus standard dose droperidol for prevention of postoperative vomiting after pediatric strabismus surgery. J Clin Anesth 3:306-309, 1991

62.           Brull SJ, Silverman DG: Visual and tactile assessment of neuromuscular fade. Anesth Analg 77:352-355, 1993

63.           Bryson GL, Kitts LB, Miller DR, Martineau RJ, Lindsay P, Hull K, Curran MJ, Bragg PR: Edrophonium requirements for reversal of neuromuscular block following infusion of mivacurium. Can J Anaesth 41:A4B, 1994

64.           Caldwell JE, Roberston EN, Baird WLM: Antagonism of vecuronium and atracurium: comparison of neostigmine and edrophonium administered at 5% twitch height recovery. Br J Anaesthesia 59:478-481, 1987

65.           Camus Y, Delva E, Cohen S, Lienhart A: The effects of warming intravenous fluids on intraoperative hypothermia and postoperative shivering during prolonged abdominal surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 40:779-782, 1996

66.           Canet J, Ricos M, Vidal F: Early postoperative arterial oxygen desaturation. Determining factors and response to oxygen therapy. Anesth Analg 69:207-212, 1989

67.           Capouet V, De Pauw C, Vernet B, Ivens D, Derijcke V, Versichelen L, Van Aken H, Ickx B, Ritter L, Hulstaert F: Single dose i.v. tropisetron in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after gynaecological surgery. Br J Anaesth 76:54-60, 1996

68.           Carr AS, Splinter WM, Bevan J, Reid CR, Stephenson CA, Lerman J: Ondansetron reduces postoperative vomiting in pediatric strabismus surgery. Anesthesiology 81:A22, 1994

69.           Carter AS, Bell GD, Coady T, Lee J, Morden A: Speed of reversal of midazolam-induced respiratory depression of flumazenil: a study in patients undergoing upper GI endoscopy. Acta Anaesth Scand 34(S92):59-64, 1990

70.           Casey W, Smith C, Katz, O'Loughlin K, Weeks SK: Intravenous meperidine for control of shivering during emergency cesarean section under dpidural anesthesia. Anesth Analg 67(suppl):S27, 1988

71.           Cashman JN, Jones RM, Adams AP: Atracurium recovery: prediction of safe reversal times with edrophonium. Anaesthesia 44:805-807, 1989

72.           Caspi J, Klausner JM, Safadi T, Amar R, Rozin RR, Merin G: Delayed respiratory depression following fentanyl anesthesia for cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med 16:238-240, 1988

73.           Chandon M, Paugam C, Just B, Trevien V, Baras E, Lienhart A: Prevention of postoperative shivering by pre or intraoperative skin-surface warming. Anesthesiology 81:A561, 1994

74.           Chang AC, Solinger MA, Yang DT, Chen YK: Impact of flumazenil on recovery after outpatient endoscopy: a placebo-controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc 49:573-579, 1999

75.           Chestnut DH, Owen CL, Geiger M, Bates JN, Choi WW, Postman PL: Metoclopramide versus droperidol for prevention of nausea and vomiting during epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. South Med 82:1224-1227, 1989

76.           Chhibber AK, Lustik SJ, Thakur R, Francisco DR, Fickling KB: Effects of anticholinergics on postoperative vomiting, recovery, and hospital stay in children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. Anesthesiology 90:697-700, 1999

77.           Chiolero R, Ravussin P, Chassot P, Neff R, Freeman J: Ro 15-1788 for rapid recovery after craniotomy. Anesthesiology 65:3A, 1986

78.           Chripko D, Bevan JC, Archer DP, Bherer N: Decreases in arterial oxygen saturation in paediatric outpatients during transfer to the postanaesthetic recovery room. Can J Anaesth 36:128-132, 1989

79.           Christensen S, Farrow-Gillespie A, Lerman J: Incidence of emesis and postanesthetic recovery after strabismus surgery in children: a comparison of droperidol and lidocaine. Anesthesiology 70:251-254, 1989

80.           Chung F, Lane R, Spraggs C, McQuade B, Jacka M, Luttropp HH, Alahuta S, Rocherieux S, Roy M, Duvaldestin P, Curtis P: Ondansetron is more effective than metoclopramide for the treatment of opioid-induced emesis in post-surgical adult patients. Ondansetron OIE Post-Surgical Study Group. Eur J Anaesthesiol 16:669-677, 1999

81.           Claeys MA, Camu F, Schneider I, Gepts E: Reversal of flunitrazepam with flumazenil: duration of antagonist activity. Eur J Anaesthesiol Suppl 2:209-217, 1988

82.           Claffey L, Plourde G, Morris J, Trahan M, Dean DM: Sedation with midazolam during regional anaesthesia: is there a role for flumazenil? Can J Anaesth 41:1084-1090, 1994

83.           Claffey L, Plourde G, Trahan M, Morris J, Dean DM: Flumazenil for reversal of sedation with midazolam during regional anaesthesia. Can J Anaesth 38:A6, 1991

84.           Clark MM, Storrs JA: The prevention of postoperative vomiting after abortion: metoclopramide. Br J Anaesth 41:890-895, 1969

85.           Clark MS, Lindenmuth JE, Jafek BW, Fryer GE, Jr., Goldberg JR: Reversal of central benzodiazepine effects by intravenous flumazenil. Anesth Prog 38:12-16, 1991

86.           Claybon L: Single dose intravenous ondansetron for the 24-hour treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia 49(suppl):24-29, 1994

87.           Claybon LE, Hirsh RA: Meperidine arrests pos-anesthesia shivering. Anesthesiology 53:S180, 1980

88.           Cohen SE, Woods WA, Wyner J: Antiemetic efficacy of droperidol and metoclopramide. Anesthesiology 60:67-69, 1984

89.           Coloma M, Duffy LL, White PF, Tongier WK, Huber PJ: Dexamethasone facilitates discharge after outpatient anorectal surgery. Anesth Analg 92:85-88, 2001

90.           Conahan TJ, 3d, Williams GD, Apfelbaum JL, Lecky JH: Airway heating reduces recovery time (cost) in outpatients. Anesthesiology 67:128-130, 1987

91.           Connolly FM, Mirakhur RK, Loan PB, McCoy EP, Symington M, Kumar N: Antagonism of mivacurium block with edrophonium from various degrees of spontaneous recovery. Br J Anaesth 74:229-230, 1995

92.           Conover MA, Lennon RL, Rose SH: Evaluation of a forced-air warming system for hopothermic postsurgical patients. Anesth Analg 68:S59, 1989

93.           Conroy JM, Mahaffey JE, Wilson ME, Haynes GR, Dorman BH, Bailey MK: Prevention of emesis following strabismus surgery. Anesthesiology 79:A10, 1993

94.           Cook JA, Fraser IA, Sandhu D, Everson NW, Rossard DP: A randomised comparison of two postoperative fluid regimens. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 71:67-69, 1989

95.           Cooper JB, Cullan DJ, Nemeskal R, Hoaglin DC, Gevirtz CC, Csete M, Venable C: Effects of information feedback and pulse oximetry on the incidence of anesthesia complications. Anesthesiology 67:686-694, 1987

96.           Cooper R, McCarthy G, Mirakhur RK, Maddineni VR: Effect of doxapram on the rate of recovery from atracurium and vecuronium neuromuscular block. Br J Anaesth 68:527-528, 1992

97.           Cote CJ, Goldstein EA, Cote MA, Hoaglin DC, Ryan JF: A single blind study of pulse oximetry in children. Anesthesiology 68:184-188, 1988

98.           Cozanitis D, Asantila R, Eklund P, Paloheimo M: A comparison of ranitidine, droperidol or placebo in the prevention of nausea and vomiting after hysterectomy. Can J Anaesth 43:106-109, 1996

99.           Cramb R, Fargas-Babjak A, Hirano G: Intraoperative prochlorperazine for prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. Can J Anaesth 36:565-567, 1989

100.        Croswell RJ, Dilley DC, Lucas WJ, Vann WF Jr: A comparison of conventional versus electronic monitoring of sedated pediatric dental patients. Pediatr Dent 17:332-339, 1995

101.        Curran MJ, Shaff L, Savarese JJ, Ali HH, Risner M:  Comparison of spontaneous recovery and neostigmine-accelerated recovery from mivacurium neuromuscular blockade. Anesthesiology 69:A528, 1988

102.        Dale S, Rowbotham DJ, Nimmo W: Oxygen saturation in the recovery room. Br J Anaesth 60:341, 1988

103.        Daley MD, Norman PH, Colmenares ME, Sandler AN: Hypoxaemia in adults in the post-anaesthesia care unit. Can J Anaesth 38:740-746, 1991

104.        Davis A, Krige S, Moyes D: A double-blind randomized prospective study comparing ondansetron with droperidol in the prevention of emesis following strabismus surgery. Anaesth Intensive Care 23:438-443, 1995

105.        Davis L, Jayarajah MJ, Toner CC, Flynn PJ: Evaluation of neuromuscular effects and antagonism of rocumonium bromied: a preliminary report. Eur J Anaesth 12(Suppl 11):65-68, 1995

106.        Davis PJ, McGowan FX, Jr., Landsman I, Maloney K, Hoffmann P: Effect of antiemetic therapy on recovery and hospital discharge time. A double-blind assessment of ondansetron, droperidol, and placebo in pediatric patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. Anesthesiology 83:956-960, 1995

107.        Debaene B, Meistelman C, D'Hollander A: Recovery from vecuronium neuromuscular blockade following neostigmine administration in infants, children, and adults during halothane anesthesia. Anesthesiology 71:84-844, 1989

108.        Dernovoi B, Agoston S, Barvias L, Baurain M, Lefebvre R, d'Hollander AA: Neostigmine antagonism of vecuronium paralysis during fentanyl, halothane, isoflurane, and enflurane anesthesia. Anesthesiology 66:698-701, 1987

109.        Dershwitz M, Rosow CE, Di Biase PM, Joslyn AF, Sanderson PE: Ondansetron is effective in decreasing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Clin Pharm Ther 52:96-101, 1992

110.        Desilva PH, Darvish AH, McDonald SM, Cronin MK, Clark K: The efficacy of prophylactic ondansetron, droperidol, perphenazine, and metoclopramide in the prevention of nausea and vomiting after major gynecologic surgery. Anaesth Analg 81:139-143, 1995

111.        Devcic A, Munshi C, Gandhi S: Mivacurium reversal: edrophonium vs. neostigmine. Anesthesiology 81:A1067, 1994

112.        Devcic A, Munshi CA, Ghandi SK, Kampine JP: Antagonism of mivacurium neuromuscular block: neostigmine versus edrophonium. Anesth Analg 81:1005-1009, 1995

113.        DiBenedetto RJ, Graves SA, Gravenstein N, Konicek C: Pulse oximetry monitoring can change routine oxygen supplementation practices in the postanesthesia care unit. Anesth Analg 78:365-368, 1994

114.        Diemunsch P, Conseiller C, Clyti N, Mamet JP: Ondansetron compared with metoclopramide in the treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth 79:322-326, 1997

115.        Diemunsch P, Korttila K, Lesser J, Helmers J, Wilkey B, Nave S, Radke A, Hahne W, Brown R: Oral dolasetron mesylate for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Anesth 10:145-152, 1998

116.        Diemunsch P, Leeser J, Feiss P, d'Hollander A, Bradburn BG, Paxton D, Whitmore J, Panouillot P, Nave S, Brown RA, Hahne WF: Intravenous dolasetron mesilate ameliorates postoperative nausea and vomiting. Can J Anaesth 44:173-181, 1997

117.        Ding Y, Fredman B, White PF: Use of mivacurium during laparoscopic surgery: effect of reversal drugs on postoperative recovery. Anesth Analg 78:450-454, 1994

118.        Dodgson MS, Skeie B, Emhjellen E, Wickstrom E, Steen DA: Antagonism of diazepam induced sedative effects by Ro-15-1788 in patients after surgery under lumbar epidural block. Acta Anaesth Scand 31:629-633, 1987

119.        Doe EA, Jones P, O'Hara MA: A comparison of prophylactic ondansetron hydrochloride and droperidol for strabismus repair in adults. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 35:264-269, 1998

120.        Donati F, Ferguson A, Bevan DR: Twitch depression and train-of-four ratio after antagonism of pancuronium with edrophonium, neostigmine or pyridostigmine. Anesth Analg 62:314-316, 1983

121.        Donati F, Smith CE, Bevan R: Dose-response relationships for edrophonium and neostigmine as antagonists of moderate and profound atracurium blockade. Anesth Analg 68:13-19, 1989

122.        Donati FD, Lahoud J, McCready D, Bevan DR: Neostigmine, pyridostigmine and edrophonium as antagonists of deep pancuronium blockade. Can J Anaesth 34:589-593, 1987

123.        Donchin Y, Feld JM, Porges SW: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during recovery from isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. Anesth Analg 64:811-815, 1985

124.        Doyle WL, Perrin L: Emergence delirium in a child given oral midazolam for conscious sedation. Ann Emerg Med 24:1173-1175, 1994

125.        Drenck NE, Ueda N, Olsen NV, Engbaek J, Jensen E, Skovgaard LT, Viby-Morgensen J: Manual evaluation of residual curarization using double burst stimulation: A comparison with train-of-four. Anesthesiology 70:578-581, 1989

126.        Du Pen S, Scuderi P, Wetchler B, Sung YF, Mingus M, Clayborn L, Leslie J, Talke P, Apfelbaum J, Sharifi-Azad S: Ondansetron in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting in ambulatory outpatients: a dose-comparative, stratified, multicentre study. Eur J Anaesthesiol 9(suppl 6):55-62, 1992

127.        Dundee JS, Clarke RSJ: The premedicant and anti-emetic action of metoclopramide. Postgrad Med J 49(suppl):34-37, 1973

128.        Dupeyron JP, Conseiller C, Levarlet M, Hemmingsen C, Schoeffler P, Pedersen FM, Gribomont B, Kaplan LA: The effect of oral ondansetron in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynaecological survery performed under general anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 48:214-218, 1993

129.        Duprey LJ, Stieglitz P: Extrapyramidal syndromes after premedication with droperidol in children. Br J Anaesth 52:831-833, 1989

130.        Eberhart LH, Seeling W, Ulrich B, Morin AM, Georgieff M. Dimenhydrinate and metoclopramide alone or in combination for prophylaxis of PONV. Can J Anaesth 47:780-785, 2000

131.        Eldor J, Fisher J, Shir Y, Pizov R: Post-operative pulmonary edema diagnosed in the recovery room. Resuscitation 20:83-85, 1990

132.        Elliott RH, Graham SG, Curran JP: Sustained release metoclopramide for prophylaxis of post-operative nausea and vomiting. Eur J Anaesthesiol 11:465-467, 1994

133.        Ellis FR, Spence AA: Clinical trials of metoclopramide (Maxolon) as an antiemetic in anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 25:368-371, 1970

134.        Elmore JR, Franklin DP, Youkey JR, Oren JW, Frey CM: Normothermia is protective during infrarenal aortic surgery. J Vasc Surg 28:984-992, 1998

135.        Engbaek J, Ording H, Ostergaard D, Viby-Mogenses J: Edrophonium and neostigmine for reversal of neuromuscular blocking effect of vecuronium. Acta Anaesth Scand 29:544-546, 1985

136.        Engbaek J, Ostergaard D, Skovgaard LT, Viby-Mogensen J: Reversal of intense neuromuscular blockade following infusions of atracurium.  Anesthesiology 72:803-806, 1990

137.        Engbaek J, Ostergaard D, Vibe-Mogensen J, Skovgaard LT: Clinical recovery and train-of-four ratio measured mechanically and electromyographically following atracurium.  Anesthesiology 71:391-395, 1989

138.        Engelman RM: Mechanisms to reduce hospital stays. Ann Thorac Surg. 61(suppl 2):S26-29, 1996

139.        Eriksson H, Korttila K: Recovery profile after desflurane with or without ondansetron compared with propofol in patients undergoing outpatient gynecological laparoscopy. Anesth Analg 82:533-538, 1996

140.        Estilo AE, Cottrell JE: Hemodynamic and catecholamine changes after administration of naloxone. Anesth Analg 61:349-353, 1982

141.        Eustis S, Lerman J, Smith D: Effect of droperidol pretreatment on post-anesthetic vomiting in children undergoing strabismus surgery: the minimum effective dose. J Ped Ophthal Strab 24:165-168, 1987

142.        Fennelly ME, Powell H, Galletly DC, Whitwam JG: Midazolam sedation reversed with flumazenil for cardioversion. Br J Anaesth 68:303-305, 1992

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