Practice Guidelines for Preoperative Fasting and the Use of Pharmacologic Agents

 for Prevention of Pulmonary Aspiration:  Bibliography


American Society of Anesthesiologists



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2. Adelhoj B, Petring OU, Frosig F, Bigler DR, Jensen BN: Influence of cigarette smoking on the risk of acid pulmonary aspiration. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 31:7-9, 1987


3. Adelhoj B, Petring OU, Pedersen NO, Andersen RD, Busch P, Vestergard AS: Metoclopramide given pre-operatively empties the stomach. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 29:322-325, 1985


4. Agarwal A, Chari P, Singh H: Fluid deprivation before operation. The effect of a small drink. Anaesthesia 44:632-634, 1989


5. Allen GD, Ricks CS, Jorgensen NB: The efficacy of the laryngeal reflex in conscious sedation. J Am Dent Assoc 94:901-903, 1977


6. Allman KG: The effect of cricoid pressure application on airway patency. J Clin Anesth 7:197-199, 1995


7. Ambiavagar M, Chan OL, Pais FW, D'Bras BE: The acid aspiration syndrome. Singapore Med J 8:35-42, 1967


8. Andrews A.D., Brock Utne J.G., Downing J.W. Protection against pulmonary acid aspiration with ranitidine. Anaesthesia 37:22-25, 1982


9. Aromaa U, Kalima TV: Ranitidine and prevention of pulmonary aspiration syndrome. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 30:10-12, 1986


10. Atanassoff PG, Rohling R, Alon E, Brull SJ: Effects of single-dose oral ranitidine and sodium citrate on gastric pH during and after general anaesthesia. Can J Anaesth 42:382-386, 1995


11. Aun CS, Panesar NS: Paediatric glucose homeostasis during anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 64:413-418, 1990


12. Barnes J.P., Havill J.H. Preoperative cimitidine - effects on gastric fluid. Anaes Intens Care 8:464-468, 1980


13. Barnes T.R.E., Braude W.M., Hill D.J. Acute akathisia after oral droperidol and metoclopramide preoperative medication. Lancet 2:48-49, 1982


14. Barr AM, Thornley BA: Thiopentone and suxamethonium crash induction. An assessment of the potential hazards. Anaesthesia 31:23-29, 1976


15. Barr AM, Thornley BA: Thiopentone and fazadinium crash induction. A comparison with thiopentone and pancuronium. Anaesthesia 35:164-168, 1980


16. Berson W., Andriani J. Silent regurgitation and aspiration during anesthesia. Anesthesiology 15:644-649, 1954


17. Bevan J.C., Burn M.C. Acid base changes and anaesthesia: the influence of preoperative starvation and feeding in paediatric surgical patients. Anaesthesia 28:415-422, 1973


18. Blitt CD, Gutman HL, Cohen DD, Weisman H, Dillon JB: "Silent" regurgitation and aspiration during general anesthesia. Anesth Analg 49:707-713, 1970


19. Bloch EC: Mendelson's syndrome--a case report. S Afr Med J 41:314-317, 1967


20. Bolsin SN, Gillbe C: Opitz-Frias syndrome. A case with potentially hazardous anaesthetic implications. Anaesthesia 40:1189-1193, 1985


21. Boulay K, Blanloeil Y, Bourveau M, Geay G, Malinovsky JM: Effects of oral ranitidine, famotidine and omeprazole on gastric volume and pH at induction and recovery from general anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 73:475-478, 1994


22. Bourne TM, Raphael JH, Tordoff SG: Anaesthesia for a patient with tracheobronchomegaly (Mounier-Kuhn syndrome). Anaesthesia 50:545-546, 1995


23. Bricker SR, McLuckie A, Nightingale DA: Gastric aspirates after trauma in children. Anaesthesia 44:721-724, 1989


24. Brock utne JG, Downing JW, O'Keefe SJ, Gjessing J: Protection against acid pulmonary aspiration with cimetidine. Anaesth Intensive Care 11:138-140, 1983


25. Browne CH, Chew HE, Clark E, Edwards JM, Hanson GC, Roberts KD: The management of the pulmonary aspiration syndrome. Intensive Care Med 3:257-266, 1977


26. Burgess G.E., Cooper J.R., Marino R.J., Peuler M.J., Warriner R.A., III: Laryngeal competence after tracheal extubation. Anesthesiology 51:73-77, 1979


27. Bynum LJ, Pierce AK: Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. Am Rev Respir Dis 114:1129-1136, 1976


28. Caldwell C., Rains G., McKiterick K. An unusual reaction to preoperative metoclopramide. Anesthesiology 67:854-855, 1987


29. Callander P., Humphrey D., Brock Utne J.G. The use of gastrozepin as a prophylaxis against pulmonary acid aspiration: a new muscarinic receptor antagonist. Eur J Anaesth 4:149-153, 1987


30. Cameron JL, Mitchell WH, Zuidema GD: Aspiration pneumonia. Clinical outcome following documented aspiration. Arch Surg 106:49-52, 1973


31. Campbell RL, Paulette SW: Pulmonary aspiration during general anesthesia. Anesth Prog 33:98-101, 1986


32. Capan L.M., Rosenberg A.D., Carni A., Patel K.P., Sheth R., Kitain E., Turindorf H. Effect of cimetidine-metoclopramide combination on gastric fluid volume and acidity. Anesthesiology 59:A4021983


33. Carlsson C, Islander G: Silent gastropharyngeal regurgitation during anesthesia. Anesth Analg 60:655-657, 1981


34. Chen CT, Toung TJ, Haupt HM, Hutchins GM, Cameron JL: Evaluation of the efficacy of Alka-Seltzer Effervescent in gastric acid neutralization. Anesth Analg 63:325-329, 1984


35. Cheney FW, Posner KL, Caplan RA: Adverse respiratory events infrequently leading to malpractice suits. A closed claims analysis. Anesthesiology 75:932-939, 1991


36. Coombs DW, Hooper D, Colton T: Acid-aspiration prophylaxis by use of preoperative oral administration of cimetidine. Anesthesiology 51:352-356, 1979


37. Coombs DW, Hooper D, Colton T: Pre-anesthetic cimetidine alteration of gastric fluid volume and pH. Anesth Analg 58:183-188, 1979


38. Coombs DW, Hooper DW: Cimetidine as a prophylactic against acid aspiration at tracheal extubation. Can Anaesth Soc J 28:33-38, 1981


39. Cramb R, Fargas Babjak A, Hirano G: Intraoperative prochlorperazine for prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. Can J Anaesth 36:565-567, 1989


40. Crawford M, Lerman J, Christensen S, Farrow Gillespie A: Effects of duration of fasting on gastric fluid pH and volume in healthy children. Anesth Analg 71:400-403, 1990


41. Cromartie RS, III: Rapid anesthesia induction in combat casualties with full stomachs. Anesth Analg 55:74-76, 1976


42. Cruickshank RH, Morrison DA, Bamber PA, Nimmo WS: Effect of i.v. omeprazole on the pH and volume of gastric contents before surgery. Br J Anaesth 63:536-540, 1989


43. Culver G.A., Makel H.P., Beecher H.K. Frequency of aspiration of gastric contents by the lungs during anesthesia and surgery. Ann Surg 133:2891951


44. Davies JA, Howells TH: Management of anaesthesia for the full stomach case in the casualty department. Postgrad Med J 49:58-63, 1973


45. Detmer MD, Pandit SK, Cohen PJ: Prophylactic single-dose oral antacid therapy in the preoperative period--comparison of cimetidine and Maalox. Anesthesiology 51:270-273, 1979


46. Dick W: [Acute Mendelsohn's syndrome. (Case report)]. Anaesthesist 18:196-198, 1969


47. Dimich I, Katende R, Singh PP, Mikula S, Sonnenklar N: The effects of intravenous cimetidine and metoclopramide on gastric pH and volume in outpatients. J Clin Anesth 3:40-44, 1991


48. Dines DE, Baker W.G., Scantland W.A. Aspiration pneumonitis - Mendelson's syndrome. JAMA 176:229-231, 1961


49. Dobb G, Jordan MJ, Williams JG: Cimetidine in the prevention of the pulmonary acid aspiration (Mendelson's) syndrome. Br J Anaesth 51:967-970, 1979


50. Dufour DG, Larose DL, Clement SC: Rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department. J Emerg Med 13:705-710, 1995


51. Durrant JM, Strunin L: Comparative trial of the effect of ranitidine and cimetidine on gastric secretion in fasting patients at induction of anaesthesia. Can Anaesth Soc J 29:446-451, 1982


52. Elliott RH, Graham SG, Curran JP: Sustained release metoclopramide for prophylaxis of post-operative nausea and vomiting. Eur J Anaesthesiol 11:465-467, 1994


53. Enoki T., Hatano Y., Tsujimura Y., Nomura R. Attenuation of gastric effects of famotidine by preoperative administration of intravenous fluids. Anesth Analg 74:68-71, 1992


54. Escolano F, Castano J, Pares N, Bisbe E, Monterde J: Comparison of the effects of famotidine and ranitidine on gastric secretion in patients undergoing elective surgery. Anaesthesia 44:212-215, 1989


55. Faure E.A.M., Lim H.S., Block B.S., Tan P.L., Roizen M.F. Sodium bicarbonate buffers gastric acid during surgery in obstetric and gynecologic patients. Anesthesiology 67:274-277, 1987


56. Foulkes E, Jenkins LC: A comparative evaluation of cimetidine and sodium citrate to decrease gastric acidity: effectiveness at the time of induction of anaesthesia. Can Anaesth Soc J 28:29-32, 1981


57. Francis RN, Kwik RS: Oral ranitidine for prophylaxis against Mendelson's syndrome. Anesth Analg 61:130-132, 1982


58. Frank M, Evans M, Flynn P, Aun C: Comparison of the prophylactic use of magnesium trisilicate mixture B.P.C., sodium citrate mixture or cimetidine in obstetrics. Br J Anaesth 56:355-362, 1984


59. Friesen RH, Honda AT, Thieme RE: Changes in anterior fontanel pressure in preterm neonates during tracheal intubation. Anesth Analg 66:874-878, 1987


60. Froelich J, Eagle CJ: Anaesthetic management of a patient with myasthenia gravis and tracheal stenosis. Can J Anaesth 43:84-89, 1996


61. Gabrielsen J, Valentin N: Routine induction of anaesthesia with thiopental and suxamethonium: apnoea without ventilation? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 26:59-62, 1982


62. Gallagher JD, Smith DS, Meranze J, Nicolson SC, Godinez RI: Aspiration during induction of anaesthesia in patients with colon interposition. Can Anaesth Soc J 32:56-59, 1985


63. Gardner AM, Pryer DL: Historical and experimental study of aspiration of gastric and oesophageal contents into the lungs in anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 38:370-379, 1966


64. Garner A.M.N. Aspiration of food and vomit. Q J Med 27:2271958


65. Gilbert SS, Easy WR, Fitch WW: The effect of pre-operative oral fluids on morbidity following anaesthesia for minor surgery. Anaesthesia 50:79-81, 1995


66. Gipson SL, Stovall TG, Elkins TE, Crumrine RS: Pharmacologic reduction of the risk of aspiration. South Med J 79:1356-1358, 1986


67. Gombar S, Kiran S, Gupta M, Gombar K, Chhabra B: Preanaesthetic oral ranitidine, omeprazole and metoclopramide for modifying gastric fluid volume and pH [letter]. Can J Anaesth 41:879-880, 1994


68. Gonzalez ER, Butler SA, Jones MK, Morford DA, Walsh WM, Kallar SK: Cimetidine versus ranitidine: single-dose, oral regimen for reducing gastric acidity and volume in ambulatory surgery patients. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 21:192-195, 1987


69. Gonzalez ER, Kallar SK, Dunnavant BW: Single-dose intravenous H2 blocker prophylaxis against aspiration pneumonitis: assessment of drug concentration in gastric aspirate. AANA J 57:238-243, 1989


70. Goodwin AP, Rowe WL, Ogg TW, Samaan A: Oral fluids prior to day surgery. The effect of shortening the pre-operative fluid fast on postoperative morbidity. Anaesthesia 46:1066-1068, 1991


71. Goudsouzian N, Cot'e CJ, Liu LM, Dedrick DF: The dose-response effects of oral cimetidine on gastric pH and volume in children. Anesthesiology 55:533-536, 1981


72. Goyagi T, Kihara S, Harukuni I, Sato S: [Comparison of airway complications on tracheal extubation in deeply sevoflurane anesthetized versus awake children]. Masui 44:1242-1245, 1995


73. Greuel H: [Clinical picture of gastric juice inhalation. (Mendelson syndrome)]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 95:1728-1731, 1970


74. Griffin RM, Hatcher IS: Aspiration pneumonia and the laryngeal mask airway [see comments]. Anaesthesia 45:1039-1040, 1990


75. Gronnebech H, Johansson G, Smedebol M, Valentin N: Glycopyrrolate vs. atropine during anaesthesia for laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 37:454-457, 1993


76. Hamelberg W., Bosomworth P.P. Aspiration pneumonitis: experimental studies and clinical observations. Anesth Analg 43:669-677, 1964


77. Hannon VM, Cunningham AJ, Hutchinson M, McNicholas W: Aspiration pneumonia and coma--an unusual presentation of dystrophic myotonia. Can Anaesth Soc J 33:803-806, 1986


78. Hardy JF, Lepage Y, Bonneville Chouinard N: Occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux on induction of anaesthesia does not correlate with the volume of gastric contents. Can J Anaesth 37:502-508, 1990


79. Harris PW, Morison DH, Dunn GL, Fargas Babjak AM, Moudgil GC, Smedstad KG, Woo J: Intramuscular cimetidine and ranitidine as prophylaxis against gastric aspiration syndrome--a randomized double-blind study. Can Anaesth Soc J 31:599-603, 1984


80. Haskins D.A., Jahr JS, Texidor M., Ramadhyani U. Single-dose oral omeprazole for reduction of gastric residual acidity in adults for outpatient surgery. Acat Anesth Scan 36:513-511, 1992


81. Hedden M, Miller GJ: Mendelson's syndrome and its sequelae. Can Anaesth Soc J 19:351-359, 1972


82. Henderson JM, Spence DG, Clarke WN, Bonn GG, Noel LP: Sodium citrate in paediatric outpatients. Can J Anaesth 34:560-562, 1987


83. Hester JB, Heath ML: Pulmonary acid aspiration syndrome: should prophylaxis be routine? Br J Anaesth 49:595-599, 1977


84. Hett DA, Scott RC, Risdall JE: Lansoprazole in the prophylaxis of acid aspiration during elective surgery. Br J Anaesth 74:614-615, 1995


85. Hirabayashi Y, Saitoh K, Fukuda H, Shimizu R: [Atropine has little significance as a premedication for spinal anesthesia]. Masui 43:306-310, 1994


86. Hofley MA, Hofley PM, Keon TP, Gallagher PR, Poon C, Liacouras CA: A placebo-controlled trial using intravenous atropine as an adjunct to conscious sedation in pediatric esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 42:457-460, 1995


87. Husemeyer RP, Davenport HT, Rajasekaran T: Cimetidine as a single oral dose for prophylaxis against Mendelson's syndrome. Anaesthesia 33:775-778, 1978


88. Hutchinson A., Maltby JR, Reid CRG: Gastric fluid volume and pH in elective patients: Part I: coffee or orange juice versus overnight fast. Can J  Anaesth 35:12-15, 1988


89. Hutchinson BR: Preoperative magnesium trisilicate in infants. Anaesth Intensive Care 4:192-195, 1976


90. Illing L, Duncan PG, Yip R: Gastroesophageal reflux during anaesthesia. Can J Anaesth 36:S123-S124, 1989


91. Ishihara H, Singh H, Giesecke AH: Relationship between diabetic autonomic neuropathy and gastric contents. Anesth Analg 78:943-947, 1994


92. Jacobs BR, Swift CA, Dubow HD, Kosarussavadi B, McGoldrick K, O'Connor TZ, Silverman DG: Time required for oral ranitidine to decrease gastric fluid acidity. Anesth Analg 73:787-789, 1991


93. Jahr JS, Burckart G, Smith SS, Shapiro J, Cook DR: Effects of famotidine on gastric pH and residual volume in pediatric surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 35:457-460, 1991


94. Jones CW: Aspiration during anesthesia--a case in point. J Natl Med Assoc 61:324-326, 1969


95. Jorgensen BG, Holm HE: Anaesthetic implications of long term diabetic complications. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 39:560-562, 1995


96. Joshi R, Sivaganesanathan A: Tiapride versus metoclopramide: comparison after minor gynaecological surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol 10:109-112, 1993


97. Kawasaki J, Kawazoe T: [The recent trend in preoperative fasting]. Masui 44:1154-1158, 1995


98. Kemmotsu O, Mizushima M, Morimoto Y, Numazawa R, Kaseno S, Yamamura T, Yokota S: Effect of preanesthetic intramuscular ranitidine on gastric acidity and volume in children. J Clin Anesth 3:451-455, 1991


99. Khalil SN, Kataria B, Pearson K, Conahan T, Kallar S, Zahl K, Gillies B, Campbell C, Brahen N, Gilmour I, et a: Ondansetron prevents postoperative nausea and vomiting in women outpatients. Anesth Analg 79:845-851, 1994


100. Khawaja AA: Reduction of the aspiration hazard in anaesthesia: use of methohexitone-suxamethonium mixtures. Med J Malaya 25:295-297, 1971


101. Khawaja AA: A rapid intubation technique for prevention of aspiration during induction of anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 43:980-983, 1971


102. Kirkegaard P, Sorensen O: Cimetidine in the prevention of acid aspiration during anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 24:58-60, 1980


103. Kitagawa E, Kubota M, Kaekura N, Fujisawa T, Fukushima K: Effect of roxatidine acetate for handicapped patients under general anesthesia. Anesth Prog 36:169-171, 1989


104. Kluger MT, Owen H, Plummer JL, McLean C: The effect of oral cisapride premedication on fasting gastric volumes. Anaesth Intensive Care 23:687-690, 1995


105. Korttila K, Kauste A, Auvinen J: Comparison of domperidone, droperidol, and metoclopramide in the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting after balanced general anesthesia. Anesth Analg 58:396-400, 1979


106. Kraus GB, Braun GG, Gotz H, Raithel S, Danner U: Administration of Famotidine for anesthesia in pediatric patients. Effect of various doses on the pH and volume of the gastric juice. Anaesthesist 39:587-592, 1990


107. Larsson S, Jonmarker C: Postoperative emesis after pediatric strabismus surgery: the effect of dixyrazine compared to droperidol. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 34:227-230, 1990


108. Lee C, Barnes A, Nagel EL: Neuroleptanalgesia for awake pronation of surgical patients. Anesth Analg 56:276-278, 1977


109. Lehot J.J., Deleat-Besson R., Bastien O., Brun Y., Adeleine P., Robin J., Estanove S. Should we inhibit gastric acid secretion before cardiac surgery? Anesth Analg 70:185-190, 1990


110. Lerman J, Christensen SK, Farrow-Gillespie AC: Effects of metoclopramide and ranitidine on gastric fluid pH and volume in children. Can J Anaesth 35:S142-S143, 1988


111. Licina MG, Newsome LR, Reeder DA, Hug CC, Jr., Moldenhauer CC: Sufentanil and succinylcholine for rapid-sequence anesthetic induction and tracheal intubation: hemodynamic and hormonal responses [see comments]. J Cardiothorac Anesth 4:318-322, 1990


112. Litman RS, Wu CL, Quinlivan JK: Gastric volume and pH in infants fed clear liquids and breast milk prior to surgery [see comments]. Anesth Analg 79:482-485, 1994


113. Lupien AE, Taylor C: Hybrid intubation technique for the management of a difficult airway: a case report. AANA J 63:50-52, 1995


114. Lyew MA, Behl SP: Anticholinergic pre-treatment in rigid bronchoscopy. Effect on heart rate, arterial blood pressure and cardiac arrhythmias. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 41:25-31, 1990


115. Maekawa N, Mikawa K, Yaku H, Nishina K, Obara H: Effects of 2-, 4- and 12-hour fasting intervals on preoperative gastric fluid pH and volume, and plasma glucose and lipid homeostasis in children. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 37:783-787, 1993


116. Maile C.J.D., Francis R.N. Preoperative ranitidine: effect of a single intravenous dose on pH and volume of gastric aspirate. Anaesthesia 38:324-326, 1983


117. Maltby JR, Hamilton RC: Preoperative fasting guidelines for cataract surgery under regional anaesthesia [letter; comment]. Br J Anaesth 71:1671993


118. Maltby JR, Koehli N., Shaffer E.A. Gastric fluid volume, pH, and emptying in elective inpatients. Influences of narcotic atropine premedication, oral fluid, and ranitidine. Can J Anaesth 35:562-566, 1988


119. Maltby JR, Lewis P, Martin A, Sutheriand LR: Gastric fluid volume and pH in elective patients following unrestricted oral fluid until three hours before surgery. Can J Anaesth 38:425-429, 1991


120. Maltby JR, Sutherland AD, Sale J.P., Shaffer E.A. Is "NPO after midnight" justified? Anesthesiology 65:A2441986


121. Maltby JR, Sutherland AD, Sale JP, Shaffer EA: Preoperative oral fluids: is a five-hour fast justified prior to elective surgery? Anesth Analg 65:1112-1116, 1986


122. Manchikanti L, Colliver JA, Marrero TC, Roush JR: Ranitidine and metoclopramide for prophylaxis of aspiration pneumonitis in elective surgery. Anesth Analg 63:903-910, 1984


123. Manchikanti L, Colliver JA, Marrero TC, Roush JR: Assessment of age-related acid aspiration risk factors in pediatric, adult, and geriatric patients [published erratum appears in Anesth Analg 1986 Feb;65(2):210]. Anesth Analg 64:11-17, 1985


124. Manchikanti L, Colliver JA, Roush JR, Canella MG: Evaluation of ranitidine as an oral antacid in outpatient anesthesia. South Med J 78:818-822, 1985


125. Manchikanti L, Grow JB, Colliver JA, Hadley CH, Hohlbein LJ: Bicitra (sodium citrate) and metoclopramide in outpatient anesthesia for prophylaxis against aspiration pneumonitis. Anesthesiology 63:378-384, 1985


126. Manchikanti L, Marrero TC, Roush JR: Preanesthetic cimetidine and metoclopramide for acid aspiration prophylaxis in elective surgery. Anesthesiology 61:48-54, 1984


127. Manchikanti L, Roush JR: Effect of preanesthetic glycopyrrolate and cimetidine on gastric fluid pH and volume in outpatients. Anesth Analg 63:40-46, 1984


128. Mankowitz E, Khan MF, Downing JW, Brock utne JG, Holloway AM: Inhalation of gastric contents [letter]. Br J Anaesth 53:778-779, 1981


129. Marx GF, Steen SN, Berenyi KJ, Foster ES, Erlanger HL, Kepes ER, Schapira M: Hazards of "crash" induction-intubation technic. N Y State J Med 68:1957-1958, 1968


130. Mathews HM, Moore J: Sodium bicarbonate as a single dose antacid in obstetric anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 44:590-591, 1989


131. Mathews HM, Wilson CM, Thompson EM, Moore J: Combination treatment with ranitidine and sodium bicarbonate prior to obstetric anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 41:1202-1206, 1986


132. McAllister JD, Moote CA, Sharpe MD, Manninen PH: Random double-blind comparison of nizatidine, famotidine, ranitidine and placebo. Can J Anaesth 37:S221990


133. McGrady E.M., Macdonald A.G. Effect of the preopertive administration of water on gastric volume and pH. Br J  Anaesth 60:803-805, 1988


134. McKenzie R, Sharifi Azad S, Dershwitz M, Miguel R, Joslyn AF, Tantisira B, Rosenblum F, Rosow CE, Downs JB, Bowie JR, et a: A randomized, double-blind pilot study examining the use of intravenous ondansetron in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in female inpatients. J Clin Anesth 5:30-36, 1993


135. McNeill M.J., Ho E.T., Kenny N.C. Effect of i.v. metoclopramide on gastric emptying after opioid premedication. Br J Anaesth 64:450-452, 1990


136. Meakin G, Dingwall AE, Addison GM: Effects of fasting and oral premedication on the pH and volume of gastric aspirate in children. Br J Anaesth 59:678-682, 1987


137. Miller M, Wishart HY, Nimmo WS: Gastric contents at induction of anaesthesia. Is a 4-hour fast necessary? Br J Anaesth 55:1185-1188, 1983


138. Mirakhur RK: Premedication with atropine or glycopyrrolate in children. Effects on heart rate and rhythm during induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Anaesthesia 37:1032-1036, 1982


139. Mirakhur RK, Clarke RS, Elliott J, Dundee JW: Atropine and glycopyrronium premedication. A comparison of the effects on cardiac rate and rhythm during induction of anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 33:906-912, 1978


140. Mircea N, Constantinescu C, Jianu E, Constantinescu N, Daschievici S, Straja D, Ungureanu D, Leoveanu A: Ultrarapid induction. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 36:61-69, 1985


141. Mogensen F, Muller D, Valentin N: Glycopyrrolate during ketamine/diazepam anaesthesia. A double-blind comparison with atropine. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 30:332-336, 1986


142. Morison DH, Dunn GL, Fargas Babjak AM, Moudgil GC, Smedstad K, Woo J: A double-blind comparison of cimetidine and ranitidine as prophylaxis against gastric aspiration syndrome. Anesth Analg 61:988-992, 1982


143. Musich J, Walts LF: Pulmonary aspiration after a priming dose of vecuronium. Anesthesiology 64:517-519, 1986


144. Newson AJ: The effectiveness and duration of preoperative antacid therapy. Anaesth Intensive Care 5:214-217, 1977


145. Nicolson SC, Dorsey AT, Schreiner MS: Shortened preanesthetic fasting interval in pediatric cardiac surgical patients. Anesth Analg 74:694-697, 1992


146. Nishimura M, Nakano S, Ueyama H, Uchiyama A, Tashiro C: Effect of preanesthetic rectal famotidine on pH and volume of gastric contents in pediatric outpatients. J Clin Anesth 3:207-210, 1991


147. Nishina K, Mikawa K, Maekawa N, Takao Y, Shiga M, Obara H: A comparison of lansoprazole, omeprazole, and ranitidine for reducing preoperative gastric secretion in adult patients undergoing elective surgery. Anesth Analg 82:832-836, 1996


148. O'Connor TA, Basak J, Parker S: The effect of three different ranitidine dosage regimens on reducing gastric acidity and volume in ambulatory surgical patients. Pharmacotherapy 15:170-175, 1995


149. Oguchi T, Hinohara S, Kashimoto S, Kumazawa T: [A case report of hypoxia in a child after renal transplantation]. Masui 38:241-245, 1989


150. Olsson GL, Hall'en B: Pharmacological evacuation of the stomach with metoclopramide. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 26:417-420, 1982


151. Olsson GL, Hallen B, Hambraeus Jonzon K: Aspiration during anaesthesia: a computer-aided study of 185,358 anaesthetics. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 30:84-92, 1986


152. Pan P.H., Moore C.H. Intraoperative antiemetic efficacy of prophylactic ondansetron versus droperidol for cesarean section patients under epidural anesthesia. Anesth Analg 83:982-986, 1996


153. Pandit SK, Kothary SP, Pandit UA, Mirakhur RK: Premedication with cimetidine and metoclopramide. Effect on the risk factors of acid aspiration. Anaesthesia 41:486-492, 1986


154. Papadimitriou L, Kandiloros A, Lakiotis K, Vlontzos M: Protecting against the acid aspiration syndrome in adult patients undergoing emergency surgery. Hepatogastroenterology 39:560-561, 1992


155. Patton CM, Jr., Moon MR, Dannemiller FJ: The prophylactic antiemetic effect of droperidol. Anesth Analg 53:361-364, 1974


156. Paxton LD, McKay AC, Mirakhur RK: Prevention of nausea and vomiting after day case gynaecological laparoscopy. A comparison of ondansetron, droperidol, metoclopramide and placebo. Anaesthesia 50:403-406, 1995


157. Payne K., Ireland P. Plasma glucose levels in the perioperative period in children. Anaesthesia 39:868-872, 1984


158. Pendeville PE, Veyckemans F, Van Boven MJ, Steinier JR: Open placebo controlled comparison of the antiemetic effect of droperidol, metoclopramide or a combination of both in pediatric strabismus surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 44:3-10, 1993


159. Penrose BH: Aspiration pneumonitis following ketamine induction for general anesthesia. Anesth Analg 51:41-43, 1972


160. Phillips S, Hutchinson S, Davidson T: Preoperative drinking does not affect gastric contents. Br J Anaesth 70:6-9, 1993


161. Pond W, Lindsey R, Cowan J: Preoperative ranitidine and metoclopramide [letter]. Anesth Analg 66:12021987


162. Rao TL, Madhavareddy S, Chinthagada M, El Etr AA: Metoclopramide and cimetidine to reduce gastric fluid pH and volume. Anesth Analg 63:1014-1016, 1984


163. Reissell E, Taskinen MR, Orko R, Lindgren L: Increased volume of gastric contents in diabetic patients undergoing renal transplantation: lack of effect with cisapride. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 36:736-740, 1992


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