Practice Guidelines for Obstetrical Anesthesia:  Bibliography

American Society of Anesthesiologists


1.             Abboud TK, Afrasiabi A, Zhu J, Mantilla M, Reyes A, D'Onofrio L, Khoo N, Mosaad P, Richardson M, Kalra M, et al.: Epidural morphine or butorphanol augments bupivacaine analgesia during labor. Reg Anesth 14:115-120, 1989

2.             Abboud TK, Artal R, Henriksen EH, Earl S, Kammula RK: Effects of spinal anesthesia on maternal circulating catecholamines. Am J Obstet Gynecol 142:252-254, 1982

3.             Abboud TK, D'Onofrio L, Reyes A, Mosaad P, Zhu J, Mantilla M, Gangolly J, Crowell D, Cheung M, Afrasiabi A,       et al.: Isoflurane or halothane for cesarean section: comparative maternal and neonatal effects. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 33:578-581, 1989

4.             Abboud TK, Khoo SS, Miller F, Doan T, Henriksen EH: Maternal, fetal, and neonatal responses after epidural anesthesia with bupivacaine, 2-chloroprocaine, or lidocaine. Anesth Analg 61:638-644, 1982

5.             Abboud TK, Kim KC, Noueihed R, Kuhnert BR, DerMardirossian N, Moumdjian J, Sarkis F, Nagappala S: Epidural bupivacaine, chloroprocaine, or lidocaine for cesarean section--maternal and neonatal effects. Anesth Analg 62:914-919, 1983

6.             Abboud TK, Kim SH, Henriksen EH, Chen T, Eisenman R, Levinson G, Shnider SM: Comparative maternal and neonatal effects of halothane and enflurane for cesarean section. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 29:663-668, 1985

7.             Abboud TK, Nagappala S, Murakawa K, David S, et al.: Comparison of the effects of general and regional anesthesia for cesarean section on neonatal neurologic and adaptive capacity scores. Anesth Analg 64:996-1000, 1985

8.             Abboud TK, Raya J, Noueihed R, Daniel J: Intrathecal morphine for relief of labor pain in a parturient with severe pulmonary hypertension. Anesthesiology 59:477-479, 1983

9.             Abboud TK, Zhu J, Reyes A, Miller H, Steffens Z, Afrasiabi K, Afrasiabi A, Sherman G, Emershad B: Effect of subarachnoid morphine on the incidence of spinal headache. Reg Anesth 17:34-36, 1992

10.          Abboud TK, Zhu J, Richardson M, Peres da Silva E, Donovan M: Desflurane: a new volatile anesthetic for cesarean section. Maternal and neonatal effects. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 39:723-726, 1995

11.          Abboud TK, Zhu J, Richardson M, Peres da Silva E, Donovan M: Intravenous propofol vs thiamylal-isoflurane for caesarean section, comparative maternal and neonatal effects. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 39:205-209, 1995

12.          Abboud TK, Zhu J, Sharp R, LaGrange C, Rosa C, Kassells B: The efficacy of intrathecal injection of sufentanil using a microspinal catheter for labor analgesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 40:210-215, 1996

13.          Abouleisch EI: Postpartum tubal ligation requires more bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia than does cesarean section. Anesth Analg 65:897-900, 1986

14.          Abouleish A, Abouleish E, Camann W: Combined spinal-epidural analgesia in advanced labour. Can J Anaesth 41:575-578, 1994

15.          Abouleish E, Abboud T, Lechevalier T, Zhu J, Chalian A, Alford K: Rocuronium (Org 9426) for caesarean section [see comments]. Br J Anaesth 73:336-341, 1994

16.          Abouleish E, Rawal N, Fallon K, Hernandez D: Combined intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine for cesarean section. Anesth Analg 67:370-374, 1988

17.          Abouleish E, Rawal N, Rashad MN: The addition of 0.2 mg subarachnoid morphine to hyperbaric bupivacaine for cesarean delivery: a prospective study of 856 cases. Reg Anesth 16:137-140, 1991

18.          Abouleish E, Rawal N, Shaw J, Lorenz T, Rashad MN: Intrathecal morphine 0.2 mg versus epidural bupivacaine 0.125% or their combination: effects on parturients. Anesthesiology 74:711-716, 1991

19.          Abouleish E, Rawal N, Tobon Randall B, Rivera Weiss M, Meyer B, Wu A, Rashad MN: A clinical and laboratory study to compare the addition of 0.2 mg of morphine, 0.2 mg of epinephrine, or their combination to hyperbaric bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia in cesarean section [see comments]. Anesth Analg 77:457-462, 1993

20.          Abouleish E: Apnoea associated with the intrathecal administration of morphine in obstetrics. A case report. Br J Anaesth 60:592-594, 1988

21.          Abouleish E: Caudal analgesia for quadruplet delivery. Anesth Analg 55:61-66, 1976

22.          Abouleish E: Foetal bradycardia during caudal analgesia: A discussion of possible causative factors. Br J Anaesth 48:481-484, 1976

23.          Ackerman WE, Juneja MM, Knapp RK: Maternal paraparesis after epidural anesthesia and cesarean section. South Med J 83:695-697, 1990

24.          Adams AP, Morgan M, Jones BC, McCormick PW: A case of massive aspiration of gastric contents during obstetric anaesthesia. Treatment by tracheostomy and prolonged intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Br J Anaesth 41:176-183, 1969

25.          Alahuhta S, Rasanen J, Jouppila R, Jouppila P, Kangas Saarela T, Hollmen AI: Uteroplacental and fetal haemodynamics during extradural anaesthesia for caesarean section. Br J Anaesth 66:319-323, 1991

26.          Ammar T, Beilin Y, Bernstein HH: Successful regional anesthesia for a woman with a single ventricle presenting for labor and delivery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 10:640-642, 1996

27.          Andrews WW, Ramin SM, Maberry MC, Shearer V, Black S, Wallace DH: Effect of type of anesthesia on blood loss at elective repeat cesarean section. Am J Perinatol 9:197-200, 1992

28.          Angel JL, Knuppel RA, Lake M. Sinusoidal fetal heart rate pattern associated with intravenous butorphanol administration: a case report.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 149:465-467, 1984

29.          Anstey JT, Sheldon GW, Blythe JG: Infectious morbidity after primary cesarean sections in a private institution. Am J Obstet Gynecol 136:205-210, 1980

30.          Antal M, Benko M: Introduction of anaesthesia in caesarean section by using ketamine and fazadinium. Acta Chir Hung 27:19-25, 1986

31.          Antoine C, Young BK, Silverman F, Greco MA, Alvarez SP. Sinusoidal fetal heart rate pattern with vasa previw in twin pregnancy. J Reprod Med 27:295-300, 1982

32.          Antoine C, Young BK: Fetal lactic acidosis with epidural anesthesia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 142:55-59, 1982

33.          Arkoosh VA, Sharkey SJ, Jr., Norris MC, Isaacson W, Honet JE, Leighton BL: Subarachnoid labor analgesia. Fentanyl and morphine versus sufentanil and morphine. Reg Anesth 19:243-246, 1994

34.          Asling JH, Schnider SM, Margolis AJ, Wilkinson GL, Way EL. Paracervical block anesthesia in obstetrics. Am J Obstet Gynecol 107:626-634, 1970

35.          Bach V, Carl P, Ravlo O, Crawford ME, et al.: A randomized comparison between midazolam and thiopental for elective cesarean section anesthesia: III. Placental transfer and elimination in neonates. Anesth Analg 68:238-242, 1989

36.          Bader AM, Datta S, Arthur GR, Benvenuti E, Courtney M, Hauch M: Maternal and fetal catecholamines and uterine Incision-to-delivery interval during elective cesarean. Obstet Gynecol 75:600-603, 1990

37.          Baheti DK: Epidural analgesia with left lateral tilt for Caesarean section. Anaesthesia 30:396-401, 1975

38.          Bajorek J, Kornacki Z, Ronin Walknowska E: Influence of the method of anesthesia for cesarean section on the clinical state of the newborn. Mater Med Pol 4:28-31, 1972

39.          Baraka A, Louis F, Noueihid R, Diab M, Dabbous A, Sibai A: Awareness following different techniques of general anaesthesia for caesarean section. Br J Anaesth 62:645-648, 1989

40.          Baraka A, Maktabi M, Noueihid R: Epidural meperidine-bupivacaine for obstetric analgesia. Anesth Analg 61:652-656, 1982

41.          Baraka A, Noueihid R, Hajj S: Intrathecal injection of morphine for obstetric analgesia. Anesthesiology 54:136-140, 1981

42.          Baraka A, O'Brien M, Aslanian E, Saade R: Propanidid versus thiopentone for induction of general anaesthesia in elective Caesarean section. Br J Anaesth 43:609-612, 1971

43.          Barrett JM, Boehm FH: Fetal heart rate responses to meperidine alone and in combination with propiomazine. South Med J 76:1480-1483, 1983

44.          Barton ACH, Spielman FJ, Onder R, Mayer DC: Timing of postpartum sterilization: Complications and cost-savings of early tubal ligations. Anesthesiology 85(A896):3A, 1996

45.          Baskett TF, Koh KS.  Sinusoidal fetal heart pattern: a sign of fetal hypoxia. Obstet Gynecol 44(3):379-382, 1979

46.          Baumann H, Alon E, Atanassoff P, Pasch T, Huch A, Huch R: Effect of epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery on maternal femoral arterial and venous, uteroplacental, and umbilical blood flow velocities and waveforms. Obstet Gynecol 75:194-198, 1990

47.          Belfrage P, Irestedt L, Raabe N, Arn'er S: General anaesthesia or lumbar epidural block for caesarean section? Effects on the foetal heart rate. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 21:67-70, 1977

48.          Benedetti TJ, Cotton DB, Read JC, Miller FC. Hemodynamic observations in severe pre-eclampsia with a flow-directed pulmonary artery catheter. Am J Obstet Gynecol 136:465-470, 1980

49.          Benson RC, Berendes H, Weiss W: Fetal compromise during elective cesarean section. II. A report from the Colloborative Project. Am J Obstet Gynecol 105:579-588, 1969

50.          Bernstein K, Gisselsson L, et al.: Influence of two different anaesthetic agents on the newborn and the correlation between foetal oxygenation and induction-delivery time in elective caesarean section. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 29:157-160, 1985

51.          Berryhill RE, Benumof JL, Saidman LJ, Smith PC, Plumer MH: Anesthetic management of emergency cesarean section in a patient with epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica polydysplastica. Anesth Analg 57:281-283, 1978

52.          Blanche R, Eisenach JC, Tuttle R, Dewan DM: Previous wet tap does not reduce success rate of labor epidural analgesia. Anesth Analg 79:291-294, 1994

53.          Blankenbaker WL, DiFazio CA, Berry FA, Jr. Lidocaine and its metabolites in the newborn. Anesthesiology 42:325-330, 1975

54.          Bobrowski RA, Bottoms SF: Underappreciated risks of the elderly multipara. Am J Obstet Gynecol 172:1764-7; 1995

55.          Boehm FH, Woodruff LF, Jr., Growdon JH, Jr. The effect of lumbar epidural anesthesia on fetal heart rate baseline variability. Anesth Analg 54:779-782, 1975

56.          Bofill JA, Vincent RD, Road EI, Martin RW, Norman PF, Werham CF, Morrison JC: Nulliparous active labor, epidural analgesia, and cesarean delivery for dystocia. Am J Obstet Gyn 177:1465-1470, 1997

57.          Bonnardot JP, Maillet M, Colau JC, Millot F, Deligne P: Maternal and fetal concentration of morphine after intrathecal administration during labour. Br J Anaesth 54:487-489, 1982

58.          Boyle R: Caesarean section anaesthesia and the Apgar score. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 33:282-284, 1993

59.          Boys JE: Failed intubation in obstetric anaesthesia. A case report. Br J Anaesth 55:187-188, 1983

60.          Bradford EM, Moir DD: Anaesthesia for Caesarean section: a comparison of thiopentone and propanidid. Br J Anaesth 41:274, 1969

61.          Breen TW, Janzen JA: Epidural fentanyl and caesarean section: when should fentanyl be given? [see comments]. Can J Anaesth 39:317-322, 1992

62.          Brian JE, Jr., Seifen AB, Clark RB, Robertson DM, Quirk JG: Aortic stenosis, cesarean delivery, and epidural anesthesia [see comments]. J Clin Anesth 5:154-157, 1993

63.          Brizgys RV, Shnider SM: Hyperbaric intrathecal morphine analgesia during labor in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 64:44S-46S, 1984

64.          Brownridge P: Spinal anaesthesia revisited: an evaluation of subarachnoid block in obstetrics. Anaesth Intensive Care 12:334-342, 1984

65.          Burns AM, Dorje P, Lawes EG, Nielsen MS: Anaesthetic management of caesarean section for a mother with pre-eclampsia, the Klippel-Feil syndrome and congenital hydrocephalus. Br J Anaesth 61:350-354, 1988

66.          Caldwell LE, Rosen MA, Shnider SM: Subarachnoid morphine and fentanyl for labor analgesia. Efficacy and adverse effects. Reg Anesth 19:2-8, 1994

67.          Camann WR, Denney RA, Holby ED, Datta S: A comparison of intrathecal, epidural, and intravenous sufentanil for labor analgesia. Anesthesiology 77:884-887, 1992

68.          Camann WR, Hortvet LA, Hughes N, Bader AM, Datta S: Maternal temperature regulation during extradural analgesia for labour. Br J Anaesth 67:565-568, 1991

69.          Camann WR, Minzter BH, Denney RA, Datta S: Intrathecal sufentanil for labor analgesia. Effects of added epinephrine. Anesthesiology 78:870-4; 1993

70.          Campbell DC, Banner R, Crone LA, GoreHickman W, Yip RW: Addition of epinephrine to intrathecal bupivacaine and sufentanil for ambulatory labor analgesia. Anesthesiology 86:525-531, 1997

71.          Campbell DC, Camann WR, Datta S: Combined spinal-epidural for labor analgesia: Comparison of intrathecal sufentanil vs bupivacaine vs sufentanil plus bupivacaine. Anesthesiology 81(3A):A1145, 1994

72.          Campbell DC, Camann WR, Datta S: The addition of bupivacaine to intrathecal sufentanil for labor analgesia. Anesth Analg 81:305-309, 1995

73.          Capogna G, Celleno D, Costantino P, Muratori F, Sebastiani M, Baldassini M: Alkalinization improves the quality of lidocaine-fentanyl epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section. Can J Anaesth 40:1425-1430, 1993

74.          Capogna G, Celleno D, Varrassi G, Emanuelli M, Sebastiani M, Muratori F, Cipriani G, Tomassetti M: Epidural mepivacaine for cesarean section: effects of a pH-adjusted solution. J Clin Anesth 3:211-4; 1991

75.          Caritis SN, Abouleish E, Edelstone DI, Mueller Heubach E: Fetal acid-base state following spinal or epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. Obstet Gynecol 56:610-615, 1980

76.          Carlsson BM, Johansson M, Westin B: Fetal heart rate pattern before and after paracervical anesthesia. A prospective study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl 66:391-395, 1987

77.          Carlsson C, Nybell-Lindahl G, Ingemarsson I: Extradural block in patients who have perviously undergone caesarean section. Br J Anaesth 52:827-829, 1980

78.          Carton EG, McDonald N, McCarthy JR: Intrathecal morphine in labour--efficacy and side effects. Ir J Med Sci 156:323-327, 1987

79.          Cascio M, Heath G: Meningitis following a combined spinal-epidural technique in a labouring term parturient. Can J Anaesth 43:399-402, 1996

80.          Cascio M, Pygenon B, Bernett C, Ramanathan S: Labour analgesia with intrathecal fentanyl decreases maternal stress. Can J Anaesth 44(6):605-609, 1997

81.          Celleno D, Capogna G, Emanuelli M, Varrassi G, Muratori F, Costantino P, Sebastiani M: Which induction drug for cesarean section? A comparison of thiopental sodium, propofol, and midazolam. J Clin Anesth 5:284-288, 1993

82.          Celleno D, Capogna G, Sebastiani M, Costantino P, Muratori F, Cipriani G, Emanuelli M: Epidural analgesia during and after cesarean delivery. Comparison of five opioids. Reg Anesth 16:79-83, 1991

83.          Celleno D, Capogna G, Tomassetti M, Costantino P, Di Feo G, Nisini R: Neurobehavioural effects of propofol on the neonate following elective caesarean section. Br J Anaesth 62:649-654, 1989

84.          Celleno D, Capogna G: Epidural fentanyl plus bupivacaine 0.125 per cent for labour: analgesic effects. Can J Anaesth 35:375-378, 1988

85.          Chadwick HS, Posner K, Caplan RA, Ward RJ, Cheney FW: A comparison of obstetric and nonobstetric anesthesia malpractice claims. Anesthesiology 74:242-249, 1991

86.          Chan AS, Ananthanarayan C, Rolbin SH: Alternating nitroglycerin and syntocinon to facilitate uterine exploration and removal of an adherent placenta. Can J Anaesth 42:335-337, 1995

87.          Chestnut DH, Noe AL: Effect of anesthesia for primary cesarean section on postoperative infectious morbidity. Obstet Gynecol 68:667-670, 1986

88.          Chestnut DH, Owen CL, Bates JN, Ostman LG, Choi WW, Geiger MW: Continuous infusion epidural analgesia during labor: a randomized, double-blind comparison of 0.0625% bupivacaine/0.0002% fentanyl versus 0.125% bupivacaine. Anesthesiology 68:754-759, 1988

89.          Chestnut DH, Owen CL, Brown CK, Vandewalker GE, Weiner CP: Does labor affect the variability of maternal heart rate during induction of epidural anesthesia? Anesthesiology 68:622-625, 1988

90.          Chestnut DH: Effect of anesthesia for repeat cesarean section on postoperative infectious morbidity. Obstet Gynecol 66:199-202, 1985

91.          Chung CJ, Bae SH, Chao KY, Chin YJ: Spinal anaesthesia with 0.25% hyperbaric bupivacaine for Caesarean section: Effects of volume. Br J Anaesth 77:145-149, 1996

92.          Cibils LA: Clinical significance of fetal heart rate patterns during labor. VI. Early decelerations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 136:392-398, 1980

93.          Cigarini I, Kaba A, Bonnet F, Brohon E, Dutz F, Damas F, Hans P: Epidural clonidine combined with bupivacaine for analgesia in labor. Effects on mother and neonate. Reg Anesth 20:113-120, 1995

94.          Clark A, Carr D, Loyd G, Cook V, Spinnato J: The influence of epidural anesthesia on cesarean delivery rates: a randomized prospective clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynec 179:1527-1533, 1998

95.          Clark SL, Greenspoon JS, Aldahl D, Phelan JP. Severe preeclampsia with persistent oliguria: management of hemodynamic subsets. Am J Obstet Gynecol 154:490-494, 1986

96.          Clarke VT, Smiley RM, Finster M: Uterine hyperactivity after intrathecal injection of fentanyl for analgesia during labor: a cause of fetal bradycardia? [letter]. Anesthesiology 81:1083, 1994

97.          Cohen S, Amar D, Nagashima H: Extradural block in obstetric patients: review of experience with gravity administration. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 35:676-679, 1991

98.          Cohen SE, Cherry CM, Holbrook RH, Jr., el Sayed YY, Gibson RN, Jaffe RA: Intrathecal sufentanil for labor analgesia--sensory changes, side effects, and fetal heart rate changes. Anesth Analg 77:1155-1160, 1993

99.          Coleman AJ, Downing JW: Enflurane anesthesia for cesarean section. Anesthesiology 43:354-357, 1975

100.       Collea JV, Rabin SC, Weghorst GR, Quilligan EJ: The randomized management of term frank breech presentation: vaginal delivery vs. cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 131:186-195, 1978

101.       Collins KM, Bevan DR, Beard RW: Fluid loading to reduce abnormalities of fetal heart rate and maternal hypotension during epidural analgesia in labour. Br Med J 2:1460-1461, 1978

102.       Collis RE, Baxandall ML, Srikantharajah ID, Edge G, Kadim MY, Morgan BM: Combined spinal epidural analgesia with ability to walk throughout labour. Lancet 341:767-768, 1993

103.       Collis RE, Davies DW, Aveling W: Randomised comparison of combined spinal-epidural and standard epidural analgesia in labour [see comments]. Lancet 345:1413-1416, 1995

104.       Combs CA, Laros RK, Jr. Prolonged third stage of labor: morbidity and risk factors. Obstet Gynecol 77:863-867, 1991

105.       Combs CA, Murphy EL, Laros RK, Jr. Factors associated with hemorrhage in cesarean deliveries. Obstet Gynecol 77:77-82, 1991

106.       Cooperstein M: The effects of fetal monitoring on oxytocin inductions. J Am Osteopath Assoc 74:654-660, 1975

107.       Copel JA, Harrison D, Whittemore R, Hobbins JC: Intrathecal morphine analgesia for vaginal delivery in a woman with a single ventricle. A case report. J Reprod Med 31:274-276, 1986

108.       Cosmi EV, Marx GF: Acid-base status of the fetus and clinical condition of the newborn following cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 102:378-382, 1968

109.       Courtney MA, Bader AM, Hartwell B, Hauch M, Grennan MJ, Datta S: Perioperative analgesia with subarachnoid sufentanil administration. Reg Anesth 17:274-278, 1992

110.       Craft JB, Levinson G, Shnider SM: Anaesthetic considerations in caesarean section for quadruplets. Can Anaesth Soc J 25:236-239, 1978

111.       Crawford JS, Davies P, Lewis M: Some aspects of epidural block provided for elective caesarean section. Anaesthesia 41:1039-1046, 1986

112.       Crawford JS, James FM3, Davies P, Crawley M: A further study of general anaesthesia for Caesarean section. Br J Anaesth 48:661-667, 1976

113.       Crawford JS: A comparison of spinal analgesia and general anesthesia for elective cesarean section. Interim report. Am J Obstet Gynecol 94:858-860, 1966

114.       Crosby ET: Obstetrical anaesthesia for patients with the syndrome of haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets [see comments]. Can J Anaesth 38:227-233, 1991

115.       Cruikshank DP, Laube DW, De-Backer LJ: Intraperitoneal lidocaine anesthesia for postpartum tubal ligation. Obstet Gynecol 42(1):127-130, 1973

116.       Dailey PA, Fisher DM, Scnider SM, Baysinger CL, Shinohara Y, Miller RD, Abboud TK, Kim KC: Pharmacokinetics, placental transfer, and neonatal effects of vecuronium and pancuronium administered during cesarean section. Anesthesiology 60:569-574, 1984

117.       Dailland P, Cockshott ID, Lirzin JD, et al.: Intravenous propofol during cesarean section: placental transfer, concentrations in breast milk, and neonatal effects. A preliminary study [see comments]. Anesthesiology 71:827-834, 1989

118.       D'Angelo R, Anderson MT, Philip J, Eisenach JC: Intrathecal sufentanil compared to epidural bupivacaine for labor analgesia. Anesthesiology 80:1209-1215, 1994

119.       D'Angelo, Gerancher JC, Eisenach JC, Raphael BL: Epidural fentanyl produces labor analgesia by a spinal mechanism. Anesthesiology 88:1519-1523, 1998

120.       Daniels JC, Hehre FW: Anesthetic considerations for complicated obstetrics. I. A retrospective study of 527 twin deliveries. Anesth Analg 46:527-539, 1967

121.       Darby S, Hunter DJ: Extradural analgesia in labour when the breech presents. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 83:35-38, 1976

122.       Das Gupta D: Propanidid versus thiopentone for induction of general anaesthesia in elective Caesarean section. Br J Anaesth 44:290, 1972

123.       Datta S, Alper MH, Ostheimer GW, Brown WU, Jr., Weiss JB: Effects of maternal position on epidural anesthesia for cesarean section, acid-base status, and bupivacaine concentrations at delivery. Anesthesiology 50:205-209, 1979

124.       Datta S, Brown WU, Jr. Acid-base status in diabetic mothers and their infants following general or spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Anesthesiology 47:272-276, 1977

125.       Datta S, Camann W, Bader A, VanderBurgh L: Clinical effects and maternal and fetal plasma concentrations of epidural ropivacaine versus bupivacaine for cesarean section. Anesthesiology 82:1346-1352, 1995

126.       Datta S, Houle GL, Fox GS: Concentration of lidocaine hydrochloride in newborn gastric fluid after elective caesarean section and vaginal delivery with epidural analgesia. Can Anaesth Soc J 22:79-83, 1975

127.       Datta S, Ostheimer GW, Weiss JB, Brown WU, Jr., Alper MH: Neonatal effect of prolonged anesthetic induction for cesarean section. Obstet Gynecol 58:331-335, 1981

128.       Davies SJ, Paech MJ, Welch H, Evans SF, Pavy TJG: Maternal experience during epidural or combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for cesarean section: A prospective, randomized trial. Anesth Analg 85:607-613, 1997

129.       de Leon Casasola OA, Lema MJ, Emrich L, Syed N: Continuous 2-chloroprocaine infusion versus intermittent bolus injections of bupivacaine or 2-chloroprocaine for epidural anesthesia in cesarean delivery. Reg Anesth 16:154-160, 1991

130.       de Vries JI, Vellenga E, Aarnoudse JG: Plasma beta-thromboglobulin in normal pregnancy and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 14:209-216, 1983

131.       Deckardt R, Fembacher PM, Schneider KT, Graeff H: Maternal arterial oxygen saturation during labor and delivery: pain-dependent alterations and effects on the newborn. Obstet Gynecol 70:21-25, 1987

132.       Department of Health, Welsh Office, Scottish Office Department of Health and Social Services, Northern Ireland: Report on confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in the United Kingdom 1985-1987.  Chapter 9, 1992

133.       Department of Health, Welsh Office, Scottish Office Department of Health and Social Services, Northern Ireland: Report on confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in the United Kingdom 1988-1990.  Chapter 9, 1995

134.       Department of Health, Welsh Office, Scottish Office Department of Health and Social Services, Northern Ireland: Report on confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in the United Kingdom 1991-1993.  Chapter 9, 1998

135.       DeSimone CA, Leighton BL, Norris MC: Spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. A comparison of two doses of hyperbaric bupivacaine [see comments]. Reg Anesth 20:90-94, 1995

136.       DeSimone CA, Norris MC, Leighton BL: Intravenous nitroglycerin aids manual extraction of a retained placenta [letter]. Anesthesiology 73:787, 1990

137.       Desprats R, Dumas JC, Giroux M, Campistron G, Faure F, Teixeira MG, Grandjean H, Houin G, Pontonnier G: Maternal and umbilical cord concentrations of fentanyl after epidural analgesia for cesarean section. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 42:1991

138.       Desprats R, Mandry J, Grandjean H, Amar B, Pontonnier G, Lareng L: [Peridural analgesia during labor: comparative study of a fentanyl-marcaine combination and marcaine alone]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod Paris 12:901-905, 1983

139.       Devcic A, Sprung J, Patel S, Kettler R, Maitra DA: PDPH in obstetric anesthesia: comparison of 24-gauge Sprotte and 25-gauge Quincke needles and effect of subarachnoid administration of fentanyl [see comments]. Reg Anesth 18:222-225, 1993

140.       Dick W, Traub E, Kraus H, Tollner U, Burghard R, Muck J: General anaesthesia versus epidural anaesthesia for primary caesarean section--a comparative study. Eur J Anaesthesiol 9:15-21, 1992

141.       Dobb G: Laryngeal oedema complicating obstetric anaesthesia [letter]. Anaesthesia 33:839-840, 1978

142.       Donnai P, Nicholas AD: Epidural analgesia, fetal monitoring and the condition of the baby at birth with breech presentation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 82:360-365, 1975

143.       Downing JW, Buley RJ, Brock Utne JG, Houlton PC: Etomidate for induction of anaesthesia at caesarean section: comparison with thiopentone. Br J Anaesth 51:135-140, 1979

144.       Downing JW, Coleman AJ: Anaesthesia for emergency caesarean section: propanidid versus thiopentone. S Afr Med J 47:1369-1372, 1973

145.       Downing JW, Houlton PC, Barclay A: Extradural analgesia for caesarean section: a comparison with general anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 51:367-374, 1979

146.       Downing JW, Johnson HV, Gonzalez HF, Arney TL, Herman NL, Johnson RF: The pharmacokinetics of epidural lidocaine and bupivacaine during cesarean section. Anesth Analg 84:527-532, 1997

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